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Extra resources for The New Cambridge Medieval History, Volume 4, Part 2: c.1024–c.1198
Cambridge Histories Online © Cambridge University Press, 2008 The papacy, 1024–1122 29 The other is the vastly expanded exercise of papal jurisdiction over clergy and laity, including kings and emperors,81 at both papal and legatine synods. Leo’s successors Urban II, Paschal II and Calixtus II still held synods in France – particularly famous is Urban’s council of Clermont in 1095 which initiated the First Crusade82 – but more usual were Italian, especially Roman, councils when the popes were in control of the Eternal City.
15 The roots of this eleventh-century transformation of the concept of papal primacy were many; they can be found throughout the Latin church. Northern polemics apparently stressed the old rule that the pope could not be judged by anyone, especially not a layman like Emperor Henry III, who moreover had no rights with regard to the election of any cleric. The views of the Italian reformer Peter Damian had developed long before Leo IX and his Lotharingian/Burgundian companions brought reforms to Rome.
The liturgical roles of the judges recall their former eminence but also indicate that they no longer practise their official functions. From the late tenth century they had been replaced by the bibliothecarius (Jordan (1947), p. 116). See also Blaauw (1987). Elze (1952), p. 53 n. 140. Regesta pontificum Romanorum: Italia pontificia, iii, nos. p. 20, 10 and 11 for Porto; pp. 25–7, nos. 2–5 for Silva Candida; p. 77, no. 9 for Tivoli. In this context Toubert (1973), p. 1036, refers to Tusculan activity ‘pre-reformateur’.