By Takeshi Matsuura S. Sourirajan
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Extra info for Reverse Osmosis and Ultrafiltration
This membrane has intrinsically high rejections, but due to the concentration polarization the observed rejection is low. ; ACS Symposium Series; American Chemical Society: Washington, DC, 1985. ch003 44 REVERSE OSMOSIS AND ULTRAFILTRATION Figure 9. Dynaceram module DC-0610. Figure 10. Direct ultrafiltration of activated sludge effluents of different MLSS concentrations. Pressure, 1 atm; and flow rate, 1 1/min. ; ACS Symposium Series; American Chemical Society: Washington, DC, 1985. ch003 3. SHOJIET AL.
A dynamically formed membrane has been applied for various effluent treatments since it was discovered by ORNL (1_), because the formation and the cleaning procedures are rather simple compared to polymeric membranes. Materials used for dynamic membranes were Zr colloid which was later supplemented by polyacrylic acid (_2). The latter membrane is now called ZOPA membrane. G. Thomas ( 3 ) , by Carre Inc. and Clemson University ( 4 ) , by University of Natal (_5), and by authors (6jJ)» Applications of dynamic membranes to various ultrafiltration processes are very interesting, because they can be used at high temperatures, formed and cleaned very easily.
Membrane A, with iep near pH 5f was also used to investigate the effect of NaNO- concentration on its passage and on the membrane permeability. 7 MPa, and F between 12 and 16 m/s. The dependence of the passage on concentration is presented in Figure 4 as log s vs. log m. 2. 2. , at pH 7. ; ACS Symposium Series; American Chemical Society: Washington, DC, 1985. ch004 52 REVERSE OSMOSIS AND ULTRAFILTRATION Figure 1. Passage of NaNO- vs. pH for polyblend membranes: O, A; A , B; V , C; and D , D. Figure 2.