By Gottfried Glockner
The most topic of this ebook is the characterization of plastics. To a excessive measure the homes of those polymers rely on the distribution of the molar mass and of different structural positive factors, and small deviations usually have an outstanding impact. consequently the characterization of polymers can't be constrained to the choice of suggest values yet needs to yield info on those distributions. utilizing classical tools, the analytical fractionation of polymer homologues and structurally isomeric polymers is very time-consuming. for that reason, effective chromatographic concepts are being more and more hired in smooth polymer characterization. within the first position, high-performance liquid chromatography is utilized, within the kind of dimension exclusion chromatography. it's also attainable, besides the fact that, to exploit different separation modes. more room is dedicated to those different chances during this quantity than is merited through their present variety of purposes, because the writer believes that many separation difficulties should be solved through separation strategies of the non-exclusion kind. however, a lot emphasis is put on dimension exclusion chromatography.
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Extra resources for Polymer Characterization by Liquid Chromatography
The resolution can most efficiently be improved through the relative distribution factor. In the case of unsatisfactory separations, one can look for conditions which increase the differences between the distribution coefficients of the components. Increasing the length of the separation path will only be the last resort. Because of the square root term in the column efficiency factor, doubling the resolving power in this way requires the length of the separating path, and hence also the duration of separation, to be increased by a factor of 4.
On the other hand, columns are operated using the wet-bed technique in most cases, the sample being injected into the already flowing eluent. Low-pressure/high-pressure chromatography. The development of efficient apparatus has allowed the use of high starting pressures in the liquid chromatography, so that also the 30 2. Chromatographic techniques high flow resistances encountered in long, high-resolution columns can be overcome. Thus high-pressure liquid chromatography (HPLC)is at the same time high-performance liquid chromatography, but the highest resolving power is achieved by means of carefully optimized techniques without using an extremely high pressure.
Since polymers cannot be evaporated without being decomposed, the dimensions of macromolecules can be determined only in solution. Here the B state is of special interest, because in this state the coils gain their unperturbed dimensions. In good solvents they are additionally expanded by solvation and an increase of the trans fraction. The expansion coefficient ~1 = ((~)/(RZ)O)O'' (4-40) increases with increasing degree of polymerization and, besides 0,contributes to the fact that (A') > ( R 2 ) o , f .