By Jacques Brasseul
L’histoire économique a connu un renouveau depuis un demi-siècle grâce à l’analyse économique, aux théories institutionnalistes et aux approches globales. Le livre présente, en s’appuyant sur ces acquis, une model synthétique de l’évolution économique du monde depuis l’origine des civilisations jusqu’à l. a. crise des subprimes.
Il aborde en superior lieu les problèmes de l. a. self-discipline elle-même, puis remonte à l. a. fin de los angeles préhistoire pour exposer de façon chronologique les qualities de l’économie vintage, puis médiévale, avant d’arriver aux Temps modernes et à l. a. révolution industrielle.
Il insiste ensuite sur l’évolution au XIXe siècle, l’extension de l’industrialisation et les mutations économiques et sociales qu’elle entraîne, l. a. mondialisation d’avant 1914.
Le XXe et l. a. période actuelle font l’objet des derniers chapitres, depuis les guerres mondiales, l. a. crise de 29 et los angeles montée des totalitarismes jusqu’à l’évolution plus favorable qui swimsuit : paix globale, montée des échanges, intégration de l’Europe, nouvelle révolution technologique et développement au Sud.
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Additional resources for Petite histoire des faits économiques
How to co-ordinate such reductions represents a real challenge given the decentralised nature of public expenditure in France; reforms to improve the authorities’ capabilities in this regard are discussed in Chapter III. The extent of fiscal consolidation that will be required is illustrated in Table 4. To be prudent, the first set of results builds in only half of the structural gains modelled in Table 4. The second set of results shows the expected impacts of a 2 per cent of GDP reduction in the pension financing requirement by 2020.
Generally, these programmes have been criticised for yielding limited improvements in the employability of participants. In this context, the Cour des Comptes was especially critical of so-called consolidated employment contracts (Contrats d’emploi consolidé, CEC), which “appear to be attributed in an effort to lower the rate of unemployment”. 6 per cent of participants found work with a permanent contract. On the other hand employers – principally local governments, hospitals and schools – are satisfied given the heavy subsidisation of these jobs (8 500 euros per head or 44 per cent of the labour cost of a worker paid at the SMIC).
6 68 76 93 117 133 C. 6 67 66 66 66 66 D. 5 64 55 50 50 52 Note: Productivity growth is output per hours worked; employment rate is portion of workforce aged 15-64 employed; ageing costs are the increase in pension and health care costs and deficits and debt are expressed as a per cent of nominal GDP. Source: OECD. The preceding simulations give a notion of the extent of additional savings that will be required. The rationale for reducing spending and finding margins for efficiency is not to meet some arbitrary goal, but rather to ensure that future © OECD 2003 Overview of economic developments and challenges 49 generations will be able to enjoy improved levels of services and living standards at economically sustainable levels of taxation.