Optical Networks. A Practical Perspective by Ramaswami

By Ramaswami

  • ''This ebook is not just thorough in protecting the physics and the purposes of optical communications, however it discusses the relevance of expertise to the rising clever optical networking revolution. this could be obligatory examining for each expert in our business.''
    —Desh Deshpande, Chairman, Sycamore Networks, Inc.

    ''This variation of Optical Networks will drastically reduction every person within the enterprise of making switch and aid them comprehend the technological know-how at the back of and the functions of an optical world.''
    —Mike Perusse, Senior vice chairman of Engineering and expertise, Qwest

    ''Rajiv Ramaswami is the industry's top instructor on optical know-how, and this ebook is the main lucid, scholarly, and enlightening advisor to wavelength department multiplexing released to date.''
    —George Gilder, Editor, Gilder know-how file and writer of Telecosm

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These numbers translate into an allowable network downtime of less than one hour per year and five minutes per year, respectively. SONET achieves this by incorporating sophisticated mechanisms for rapid service restoration in the event of failures in the network. This is a subject we will look at in Chapter 10. Finally, SONET includes extensive overheads that allow operators to monitor and manage the network. Examples of these overheads include parity check bytes to determine whether frames are received in error or not, and connection identifiers that allow connections to be traced and verified across a complex network.

ADMs are deployed in linear and ring network configurations. They provide an efficient way to drop part of the traffic at a node while allowing the remaining traffic to pass through. The ring topology allows traffic to be rerouted around failures in the network. Regenerators regenerate the SONET signal wherever needed. DCSs are deployed in larger nodes to switch a large number of traffic streams. Today's DCSs are capable of switching thousands of 45 Mb/s traffic streams. The functions performed by the optical layer are in many ways analogous to those performed by the SONET layer.

The final form of electronic regeneration is 1R, where the signal is simply received and retransmitted without retiming or reshaping. This form of regeneration can handle analog data as well, but its performance is significantly poorer than the other two forms of regeneration. For this reason, the networks being deployed today use 2R or 3R electronic regeneration. Note, however, that optical amplifiers are widely used to amplify the signal in the optical domain, without converting the signal to the electrical domain.

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