By John B. Williamson
This paintings makes vast use of 7 well-developed ancient case experiences describing the evolution of public old-age defense in commercial countries (Germany, uk, Sweden, and the U.S.) and constructing countries (Brazil, Nigeria, and India). The authors concentrate on specifying contexts within which normal theoretical views can be utilized to account for those advancements. one of many few reviews which integrates old and quantitative information, this available paintings will turn out important to scholars and researchers of the welfare country, getting older coverage, and comparative sociology.
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Additional resources for Old-Age Security in Comparative Perspective
As with the Holy Roman Empire, the major states continued to follow their independent political, economic, and foreign policies (Carr 1979, p. 4). During the period of the Confederation people were much more likely to consider themselves Austrians, Prussians, or Bavarians than citizens of Germany (Passant 1959, p. 15). The Prussian constitution of 1850 established a dualistic state with the power divided between the king and the Parliament. The Parliament consisted of a hereditary House of Lords and an elected Chamber of Deputies.
For example, based on this perspective we might have expected a nation with a strong social democratic party to have enacted a highly redistributive pension program and a nation with a weak social democratic party to enact a highly market-conforming program, which is what Germany did. Although Bismarck was not responding to direct pressure from labor or the Social Democrats to enact pension legislation, he was responding to the growing influence of the socialists and the urban working class. While his objective was social control, the approach did increase state spending on the social programs for the working class.
It has been described as the least popular of the social insurance schemes that Bismarck introduced during the 1880s (Tampke 1981, p. 76). The old-age pension benefit would not be available until the worker was age 70. Given that only 20 percent of German workers survived to age 70 in the 1880s (Kohli 1987, p. 136), it is not 28 Old-Age Security in Comparative Perspective surprising that many workers had doubts as to whether they would live long enough to receive benefits based on the contributions (taxes) they would be making throughout their working lives.