By Michael C. Johnson, Bruno Policeni, Andrew G. Lee, Wendy R.K. Smoker
Ophthalmologists are usually the 1st clinicians to judge a sufferer harboring an underlying intraorbital or intracranial structural lesion. This certain place makes it really vital for them to appreciate the elemental mechanics, symptoms, and contraindications for the to be had orbital and neuroimaging reports (e.g., CT and MR imaging), in addition to any certain reviews that could be essential to absolutely evaluation the suspected pathology. it's both very important for them as a way to converse their imaging questions and supply appropriate scientific info to the examining radiologist. because the booklet of the unique variation of this American Academy of Ophthalmology Monograph in 1992, new concepts and exact sequences have more suitable our skill to become aware of pathology within the orbit and mind which are major for the ophthalmologist. during this moment version of Monograph 6, Johnson, Policeni, Lee, and Smoker have up-to-date the unique content material and summarized the new neuroradiologic literature at the a number of modalities appropriate to CT and MR imaging for ophthalmology. They emphasize vascular imaging advances (e.g., MR angiography (MRA), CT angiography (CTA), MR venography (MRV), and CT venography (CTV) and particular MR sequences (e.g., fats suppression, fluid attenuation inversion restoration (FLAIR), gradient remember echo imaging (GRE), diffusion weighted imaging (DWI), perfusion weighted imaging (PWI), and dynamic perfusion CT (PCT)). they've got additionally incorporated tables that define the symptoms, most sensible imaging suggestions for particular ophthalmic entities, and examples of particular radiographic pathology that illustrate the correct entities. The objective of this Monograph is to augment the severe value of actual, entire, and well timed communication--from the prescribing ophthalmologist to the studying radiologist--of the scientific findings, differential prognosis, and presumed topographical position of the suspected lesion to ensure that the radiologist to accomplish the optimum imaging research, and eventually, to obtain the simplest interpretation.
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Additional resources for Neuroimaging in Ophthalmology (Opthamology Monograph Series)
CC, corpus callosum; CN, caudate nucleus; LV, lateral ventricle; Pu, putamen; SP, septum pellucidum; SS, sphenoid sinus; V3, third ventricle. 35 Figure 1-41. Coronal T1-weighted (left) and T2-weighted (right) MRI demonstrating normal anterior optic chiasm (OC) anatomy. Note the optic chiasm in the suprasellar cistern (SCi). ACA, anterior cerebral artery; CC, corpus callosum; CN3, third cranial nerve; ICA, internal carotid artery; LPM, lateral pterygoid muscle; LV, lateral ventricle; MPM, medial pterygoid muscle; SP, septum pellucidum; SS, sphenoid sinus.
The 180° pulse is given to alter the magnetization in the transverse plane, fl ipping the magnetic moment of the protons that have already been excited by the RF pulse while keeping them within the same plane. The resulting signal is sampled at a time TE (echo time) after the RF pulse, which is set by the operator to twice the interval between any two consecutive 180° pulses (see Figure 1-9). The spin-echo technique minimizes the effects of inhomogeneities in the static magnetic field. The cycle can be thought of as fl ipping the protons into phase at the end of the pulse.
Optic nerve enhancement in optic Magnetic Resonance Imaging 39 Figure 1-47. Parasagittal T1weighted MRI demonstrating normal anatomy. Cb, cerebellum; SF, sylvian fissure; TL, temporal lobe; TS, transverse sinus. Figure 1-48. Parasagittal T1weighted MRI demonstrating normal orbital anatomy. Cb, cerebellum; G, globe; IR, inferior rectus muscle; LPS, levator palpebrae superioris muscle; MS, maxillary sinus; ON, optic nerve; SR, superior rectus muscle; TL, temporal lobe. neuritis or optic nerve sheath meningioma) (Figure 1-69).