By Geoffrey D. Clarke, Frederick J. Bonte, James L. Fleckenstein (auth.), James L. Fleckenstein MD, John V. Crues III MD, Carl D. Reimers MD (eds.)
A complete text-reference of imaging skeletal muscle. This booklet is wonderful by way of its presentation of all on hand modalities: x-ray, CT ultrasound, and MRI. this can be a space of significant significance to neurologists and orthopaedists in addition to radiologists.
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Additional resources for Muscle Imaging in Health and Disease
Due to being cold; patients with neuromuscular diseases often show an abnormal sensitivity to cold) imitate fasciculations. Fasciculations can easily be differentiated from pulses of vessels because of the irregular appearance of the former. Generally, fasciculations are most often seen in the quadriceps femoris and calf muscles. In summary, muscle ultrasound is a widely available, very informative, and inexpensive method for detecting and documenting muscle atrophy or hypertrophy, mesenchymal abnormalities of the muscles, especially calcifications and fat, and involuntary muscle movements.
Basically the CSI methods described earlier are spectroscopic imaging techniques. The signal may be collected without any gradient switched on. The spatial information is encoded in the initial phase of the signal by gradient pulses with variable amplitudes. 34 If a priori information of the spectrum may be used, one may limit the spectroscopic resolution. 24 Conclusion MR imaging techniques have evolved during the past two decades. The improvements in the future include increased imaging speed and resolution.
However, 31p, l3C, 23Na, potassium 9 K), and fluorine 9F) are also biologically interesting nuclei. In addition to anatomical imaging, hydrogen may be used to observe metabolites such as lactate, which is increased in anaerobic conditions (see Chapter 8). The resonance frequency of lactate protons differs from that of water protons. However, the resonance signals from water protons are approximately 10,000 times stronger than those from lactate protons. Selective saturation techniques are necessary to suppress the signal from water and lipid protons.