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Additional info for Modern Concrete Construction Manual: Structural Design, Material Properties, Sustainability
After appropriate preliminary tests, using retarders in the production of very large structural components allows the concrete’s setting to be very precisely controlled. Delays of just 2 to 4 hours are usually required, although longer periods of up to 10 hours and more can also be provided. Hardening retarders can also be added to concrete in small doses as a precaution to ensure a monolithic pouring of structural components in difficult or unclear construction situations or adequate working times in exceptionally warm concreting conditions.
This self-healing occurs due to the re-hardening of unhydrated cement particles in the concrete and the depositing of limestone and suspended solids in the water in the crack. This construction method cannot usually be used for structures in performance class A because of the temporary permeation with water required for “healing”. A construction method with reduced restraint without separation crack formation should always be the first choice here.
20). 22 Formation of needle-like crystals that form in a hardening cement particle [kg/m3] Cement content [kg/m3] Exposure classes XF, XM 8 ... 63 mm Abbreviation Colour CE label/Approval Concrete flow agents BV yellow CE Plasticiser FM grey CE Plasticiser /retarder (combination product) FM grey CE Aerating agent LP blue CE Retarder 2 VZ red CE Hardening accelerator BE green CE Hardening accelerator BE green CE Hardening accelerator for shotcrete SBE green Approval Admixtures for grout EH white CE Stabiliser ST violet CE Sedimentation reducer SR yellow-green Approval Aggregate’s largest particle 8 mm ≤ 300 450 1) 400 1) 550 Sealant DM brown CE ≥ 350 500 1) 450 1) 550 Chromate reducer CR pink Approval Recycling aids RH black Approval Foaming agents SB orange Approval 1) 16 ...