Medieval Warfare: A History by Maurice Keen

By Maurice Keen

The medieval interval used to be a unique epoch in army history--an age profoundly encouraged by means of martial beliefs, whose very constitution of society was once equipped for battle, and whose leaders have been by way of necessity warriors. Now, the richly illustrated Medieval Warfare illuminates this period, interpreting over 700 years of eu clash, from the time of Charlemagne to the tip of the center a long time (1500). Twelve students research medieval struggle in sections. the 1st part explores the adventure of warfare chronologically, with essays at the Viking age, at the wars and growth of the 11th and 12th centuries, at the Crusades, and at the nice Hundred Years struggle among England and France. the second one part lines advancements within the artwork of struggle: fortification and siege craft, the position of armored cavalrymen, using mercenary forces, the start of gunpowder artillery, and the hot talents in navigation and shipbuilding.

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The decoration of the chair has suffered excessive damage over seven hundred years. The present ruined condition of the gesso possibly originated in the repeated tacking and nailing on of coverings on the occasion of coronations. A large number of tacks and nails show up vividly on X-ray photographs, particularly in the interior. The custom of covering the chair with precious material started early, and evidently it was customary for the populace after a coronation to sweep up the nave and rip pieces of the precious cloth from the chair as mementoes.

Clearly, the crown was of great symbolic significance. At his abdication, according to Froissart, Richard II took off his crown in the Tower of London and handed it to Henry of Lancaster saying, ‘Harry, fair cousin and Duke of Lancaster, I present and give to you this crown with which I was crowned King of England, and all the rights dependent on it’. Bolingbroke had the crown and sceptre promptly packed up and taken to the Treasury at Westminster Abbey. Shakespeare shows historical insight, if not strict accuracy, when he portrays Henry IV 15 A crown of gold set with sapphires, rubies, diamonds, pearls and decorated with enamelling.

On these occasions the barons, leading churchmen and magnates met the king in council (Biddle 1986, 51–2). This custom was already followed in Germany and France and it continued in England until the reign of Edward I who was averse to wearing his crown in public. William Rufus used his father’s seal until about 1096 when a matrix was specially executed for him. On this the crown is shown changed: it is the English lily crown but with five points surmounted by trefoils. New features which appear on Rufus’s crown and on crowns in subsequent seals until the reign of Henry II are two strings, tassels or straps which dangle on either side of the royal ears.

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