By Malcolm L. Van Blerkom
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Extra resources for Meas statistic for teachers
We will discuss how these standards are turned into goals and objectives. Finally, we will describe several approaches to developing and using instructional objectives, especially as they apply to classroom testing. I should point out that the terms that I am using in this chapter are not always used in a standardized way. Diﬀerent authors sometimes use these terms in diﬀerent ways. For example, Impara (2007) points out that what we used to refer to as goals and objectives are now frequently called content standards.
With many students, ability tests will underestimate a student’s ability. There is an additional problem with the ability-referenced approach. Many skills we teach in school are dependent on several diﬀerent abilities. There is no single ability involved in performing well in social studies. We do not really know all of the skills involved with eﬀective learning in social studies and many other areas. Therefore, we have no real way to estimate how a student should perform in most subject-matter areas.
We assume that a student who scored 37 points more on the second test than the ﬁrst test learned more than the student whose score only improved by 22 points. This appears very logical and sounds like a reasonable way to interpret test scores. Deﬁnition With growth-referenced interpretations we compare the student’s test score after instruction with the score of a similar test given prior to instruction. In reality, however, there are several serious problems with this approach. The ﬁrst problem arises because diﬀerence scores are notoriously unreliable.