By Gerald Schubert, Donald L. Turcotte, Peter Olson
Mantle Convection within the Earth and Planets is a complete synthesis of all facets of mantle convection in the Earth, the terrestrial planets, the Moon, and the Galilean satellites of Jupiter. The authors contain updated discussions of the most recent study advancements that experience revolutionized our figuring out of the Earth and the planets. The ebook encompasses a entire index, an intensive reference checklist, various illustrations (many in colour) and significant questions that attention the dialogue and recommend avenues of destiny examine. it's compatible as a textual content for graduate classes in geophysics and planetary physics, and as a supplementary reference to be used on the undergraduate point. it's also a useful evaluate for researchers within the extensive fields of the Earth and planetary sciences.
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Extra info for Mantle Convection in the Earth and Planets (Cambridge Monographs on Mechan)
At depths of less than about 55 km, the earthquakes occur on the dipping fault plane that separates the descending lithosphere from the overlying lithosphere (Ruff, 1996). , 1999). Earthquakes at ocean trenches can occur to depths of 660 km or more, depending on variations in the depth of the 660 km seismic discontinuity. , 1996) in accordance with the expected upwarping of the 660 km seismic discontinuity (see Chapters 4, 9, 10, and 13). This seismogenic region, known as the Wadati–Benioff zone (Wadati, 1928, 1934/35; Benioff, 1949; Utsu, 1971), delineates the approximate structure of the descending plate.
26. , 1997). For a color version of this ﬁgure, see plate section. The surface rocks of the continental crust are much older than the rocks of the oceanic crust. They also have a much more silicic composition. The continents include not only the area above sea level but also the continental margins. It is difﬁcult to provide an absolute deﬁnition of the division between oceanic and continental crust. In most cases it is appropriate to deﬁne the transition to occur at an ocean depth of 3 km. 9×108 km2 , or 37% of the surface of the Earth.
The only mechanism that can recycle these relatively large volumes of continental crust is crustal delamination (Turcotte, 1989a, b). Bird (1979) hypothesized that delamination occurred in a manner like subduction as a consequence of lithospheric ﬂexure beneath a decollement similar to the ﬂexure of the oceanic lithosphere seaward of an ocean trench. However, this type of delamination would result in 46 Plate Tectonics large surface gravity signatures that are not observed. Another model for delamination has been given by Houseman et al.