Load Balancing Servers, Firewalls and Caches by Chandra Kopparapu

By Chandra Kopparapu

From an insider--a shut examine high-performance, end-to-end switching solutions
Load balancers are speedy changing into an quintessential resolution for dealing with the large site visitors calls for of the net. Their skill to resolve a mess of community and server bottlenecks within the net age levels from dramatic advancements in server farm scalability to removal the firewall as a community bottleneck. This ebook presents a close, up to date, technical dialogue of this fast-growing, multibillion buck marketplace, masking the complete spectrum of topics--from server and firewall load balancing to obvious cache switching to worldwide server load balancing. within the strategy, the writer provides perception into the best way new applied sciences are deployed in community infrastructure and the way they paintings. Written by way of an professional who hails from a number one internet swap seller, this publication might help community and server directors increase the scalability, availability, manageability, and defense in their servers, firewalls, caches, and websites.

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The real servers can also be given private IP addresses, as defined in RFC 1918, to block any direct access by outside users. The private IP addresses are not routable on the Internet. Anyone in the public Internet must go through a device that performs network address translation (NAT) in order to communicate with a host that has a private IP address. The load balancer can naturally be that intermediate device that Ser ver Load Balancing: Basic Concepts 19 performs network address translation as part of distributing and forwarding the client requests to different real servers.

Enhanced NAT The term enhanced NAT is used to describe the NAT performed by the load balancer with protocol-specific knowledge in order to make certain protocols work with load balancing.

Once the destination server is determined, the load balancer makes a new session entry in its session table. The load balancer changes the destination IP address and destination MAC address in the packet to the IP and MAC address of RS2, and forwards the packet to RS2. When RS2 replies with TCP SYN ACK, the packet now arrives at the load balancer with source IP address as that of RS2, and destination IP address as that of the client. The load balancer performs un-NAT to replace the IP address of RS2 with VIP, and forwards the packet to the router for delivery to the client.

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