By Robert L. Williams II, Douglas A. Lawrence

The e-book blends clarity and accessibility universal to undergraduate keep an eye on platforms texts with the mathematical rigor essential to shape a superior theoretical beginning. Appendices disguise linear algebra and supply a Matlab overivew and documents. The reviewers mentioned that this can be an bold venture yet person who can pay off a result of loss of stable updated textbooks within the quarter.

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**Extra info for Linear State-Space Control Systems**

**Example text**

Eye(n) Creates an n × n identity matrix In . zeros(m,n) Creates a m × n array of zeros. ones(m,n) Creates a m × n array of ones. t = t0:dt:tf Creates an evenly spaced time array starting from initial time t0 and ending at ﬁnal time tf , with steps of dt . disp(‘string’) Print the text string to the screen. name = input(‘string’) The input command displays a text string to the user, prompting for input; the entered data then are written to the variable name . help In the MATLAB Editor (not in this book), comments appear in green, text strings appear in red, and logical operators and other reserved programming words appear in blue.

4 to derive a linearized model about the unstable equilibrium condition corresponding to zero angular displacement. 15 Diagram for Continuing Exercise 2. 15. That is, specify the state variables and derive the coefﬁcient matrices A, B, C, and D. Write out your results in matrix-vector form. Give the system order and matrix-vector dimensions of your result. Consider three distinct cases: i. Single-input, single-output: input f (t) and output θ (t). ii. Single-input, multiple-output: one input f (t) and two outputs w(t) and θ (t).

8 Ball and beam apparatus. LINEARIZATION OF NONLINEAR SYSTEMS 21 In addition, we take the input to be the applied torque τ (t) and the output to be the ball position p(t), so u(t) = τ (t) y(t) = p(t) The resulting nonlinear state equation plus the output equation then are x˙1 (t) = x2 (t) x˙2 (t) = b[x1 (t)x4 (t)2 − g sin x3 (t)] x˙3 (t) = x4 (t) −2mx1 (t)x2 (t)x4 (t) − mgx1 (t) cos x3 (t) + u(t) x˙4 (t) = mx1 (t)2 + J + Jb y(t) = x1 (t) in which b = m/[(Jb /r 2 ) + m]. We consider nominal trajectories corresponding to a steady and level beam and constant-velocity ball position responses.