L'Imaginaire médiéval : Essais by Jacques Le Goff

By Jacques Le Goff

Si toute société, toute époque a son imaginaire, certaines semblent en receler plus que d'autres ou lui donner une value plus grande. Ainsi en allait-il des hommes et des femmes de l'Occident médiéval. Immergés dans un monde de réalités cachées qu'ils considéraient comme plus réelles et plus vraies que celles saisies par leurs sens extérieurs, ils se nourrissaient de cet imaginaire que leur fournissaient les sens intérieurs dont l'Église leur enseignait qu'ils leur apportaient les messages de Dieu - à moins que devil ne se fût glissé en eux.
On verra ici, dans ce «long» Moyen Âge qui pour Jacques Le Goff aborde jusqu'à nos rivages, l'univers a number of et conflictuel du merveilleux, les photographs de l'espace et du temps de l'ici-bas et de l'au-delà, les représentations du corps et leur saisie par l'idéologie, les codes symboliques et les métaphores littéraires qui ont permis de penser le monde et los angeles société. Les attitudes à l'égard des rêves fournissent un observatoire privilégié : d'une Antiquité passionnée par l'oniromancie, remark est-on passé à l. a. révolution répressive que le christianisme a fait subir à l'interprétation des rêves et quels enjeux de fond révèle leur retour en strength à partir du XIIe siècle ? Et, à l. a. suite du Marc Bloch des Rois thaumaturges, quelle position faire à l'imaginaire dans le retour à l'histoire politique de l'anthropologie historique ?
L'imaginaire, un des grands acteurs de l'histoire.

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The public life of Middlewich can also be glimpsed through these records. All of the appointees to official roles—here governors of salt boiling and jurors—were men, and this too reflects a broader pattern seen throughout most of medieval Europe. Whereas work boundaries were somewhat permeable, boundaries of public authority were far less so. Despite the fact that Katherine de Halghton ran a salt house with six salt pans, she was never appointed to the position of governor of salt boiling, nor was she made a juror, a bailiff, or a chamberlain.

The number of serfs increased considerably during the early Middle Ages, as their numbers were augmented by former slaves and by free peasants who were unable to make a living by wage labor and thus committed themselves and their descendents to serfdom in exchange for the security of a plot of land. During the early Middle Ages, no one lived at a level that could be described as comfortable by modern standards. Even among the aristocracy, standards of living were low. Agricultural yields were meager, which meant low profits and little money available for luxury items.

Runaway serfs, along with free peasants, established themselves in trades such as shoemaking, baking, candlemaking, and stonemasonry. Eventually each trade came to be organized into a local guild, which protected the interests of its members. Guilds ensured that no one could gain a monopoly on the supplies for their trade (no shoemaker, for instance, could buy up all the local leather), and they looked after their members in the case of disability or death. The widow of a guild member might expect help in paying for her husband’s funeral, plus a degree of financial assistance in bringing up her children.

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