L'Europe est-elle née au Moyen Age ? by Jacques Le Goff

By Jacques Le Goff

L’Europe contemporaine est une longue histoire qui start avant l. a. venue du christianisme, et se proceed avec son reflux. À l’oeil qui sait voir apparaissent des lines, strates successives de nombreuses mutations, depuis les ruines de l’Empire romain jusqu’aux découvertes du XVIe siècle. L’historien les met au jour, les discover, pour montrer combien l'Europe contemporaine hérite, emprunte, reprend bien des caractères de cette «Europe» médiévale qui n'est pas tout à fait l. a. nôtre, mais représente un second vital dans sa structure : unité potentielle et diversité fondamentale, métissage des populations, divisions et oppositions Ouest-Est/Sud-Nord, primat unificateur de l. a. tradition. De l’échec carolingien à los angeles «belle» Europe des villes et des universités, Jacques Le Goff nous entraîne dans un extreme voyage à rebours, dans l’espoir que, comprenant mieux leur provenance, les Européens construisent mieux leur avenir.Jacques Le GoffSpécialiste internationalement renommé du Moyen Âge, héritier de l’École des Annales, il est directeur d’études honoraire à l’École des hautes études en sciences sociales. Il est l’auteur, au Seuil, de Les Intellectuels au Moyen Âge (1967), l. a. Vieille Europe et los angeles nôtre (1994), Héros et Merveilles du Moyen Âge (2005), Le Moyen Âge expliqué aux enfants (2006), et L’Europe expliquée aux jeunes (2007).

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The fundamental problem is signi®ed re¯exively back to her, by means of a symbolic con®guration external to herself. This specular confrontation, an instructive ``mirror of the malmarieÂe,'' as it were,28 she ®nds depicted in the incendiary drama adorning her bedchamber: La chaumbre ert peinte tut entur; Venus, la deuesse d'amur, Fu tres bien mise en la peinture; Les traiz mustrout e la nature Cument hom deit amur tenir E lealment e bien servir. Le livre Ovide, ou il enseine Comment chascuns s'amur estreine, En un fu ardant le gettout, E tuz iceus escumengout Ki jamais cel livre lirreient Ne sun enseignement fereient.

30 Although each of these two instances of the specular schema is unique in terms of subject matter, the semantic substratum is virtually the same in each case, though contrastive in terms of gender.

For that pastime pleased him immensely]. The enticement of cynegetic pleasures offers a seductive threshold, beyond which the unanticipated occurs. As in the Vie de Saint Eustace and Flaubert's tale, we move from a 26 The specular encounter in ®ctions of reciprocity full-scale chase to the hunter's isolation with one speci®c quarry. When he mortally wounds the animal, Guigemar suffers both a thigh wound from his rebounding arrow and, far more acutely, the quarry's malediction. Like the stag pursued by Eustace, it initially signals the failure of the hunt, then utters a prophecy: OõÈ!

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