By Jaakko Hintikka
A notice of caution in regards to the goals of this quantity is so as. different clever a few readers will be unpleasantly stunned through the truth that of the chapters of an ostensibly historic publication are principally topical instead of old. they're Chapters 7 and nine, respectively entitled 'Are Logical Truths Analytic?' and 'A Priori Truths and Things-In-Them selves'. furthermore, the background handled in bankruptcy eleven is so fresh as to have extra severe than antiquarian curiosity. this mix of fabrics could appear the entire extra fabulous as I shall myself criticize (in bankruptcy I) too facile assimilations of prior thinkers' recommendations and difficulties to later ones. there isn't any inconsistency right here, it kind of feels to me. The goals of the current quantity are historic, and for that very goal, for the aim of realizing and comparing past thinkers it is necessary to grasp the conceptual panorama within which they have been relocating. A crude analogy could be worthy right here. No army historian can manage to pay for to overlook the topo graphy of the battles he's learning. If he doesn't understand in a few element what sort of go Thermopylae is or on what kind of ridge the conflict of Bussaco was once fought, he has no enterprise of discussing those battles, whether this topographical info by myself doesn't but volume to historic wisdom.
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Extra info for Knowledge and the Known: Historical Perspectives in Epistemology
It is true that there is such a reduction of indirect sentences to direct sentences. What we have to study is the kind of relation between the two categories. Pragmatists and positivists have made an attempt to clarify this relation. This attempt is based on the supposition that there is an equivalence between the indirect sentence, on one side, and the class of direct sentences, on the other side. , a combination by "and," but it may contain disjunctions, negations, implications, etc. This is obvious even in a simple case: for measuring the temperature of our chamber we may use a mercury thermometer, or an alcohol thermometer, etc.
It is physically impossible to find facts which confirm the statement, "A moves toward B," and do not confirm the statement, "B moves toward A"--this is the content of Einstein's principle of relativity. Einstein does not speak of a logical necessity here; on the contrary, he emphasizes the empiri-44- cal origin of his principle, and it is just the words "physically impossible" in which this empirical origin becomes manifest. Analysis has shown that it is logically possible to imagine facts which distinguish the two sentences in question; so it is logically possible to imagine a world in which the principle of relativity does not hold.
A n , comprehend the whole series of propositions from which A can be inferred and at the same time all propositions which can be inferred from A. , a class which never can be exhaustively given to human beings. Take as an example the sentence A concerning the temperature of the sun. Among a 1 , a 2 , . . , a n we have, then, observations concerning radiation of sunbeams and hot bodies, observations concerning spectral lines, etc. It is true that the class of propositions from which we start in order to infer A is a finite one, and even a practically finite one; for what we have is always a finite number of propositions.