Knowledge and Skepticism (Topics in Contemporary Philosophy) by Joseph Keim Campbell, Michael O'Rourke, Harry S. Silverstein

By Joseph Keim Campbell, Michael O'Rourke, Harry S. Silverstein

There are major questions in epistemology: what's wisdom? And: can we have any of it? the 1st query asks after the character of an idea; the second one consists of grappling with the skeptic, who believes that nobody is familiar with whatever. This choice of unique essays addresses the topics of data and skepticism, supplying either modern epistemological research and historic views from major philosophers and emerging students. participants first contemplate wisdom: the intrinsic nature of information -- particularly, features of what distinguishes wisdom from actual trust; the extrinsic exam of information, targeting contextualist debts; and kinds of data, particularly perceptual, introspective, and rational wisdom. the ultimate chapters supply a variety of views on skepticism. wisdom and Skepticism presents an eclectic but coherent set of essays by way of distinct students and significant new voices. The state of the art nature of its contributions and its interdisciplinary personality make it a worthy source for a large viewers -- for philosophers of language in addition to for epistemologists, and for psychologists, selection theorists, historians, and scholars at either the complex undergraduate and graduate levels.

ContributorsKent Bach, Joseph Keim Campbell, Joseph Cruz, Fred Dretske, Catherine Z. Elgin, Peter S. Fosl, Peter J. Graham, David Hemp, Michael O'Rourke, George Pappas, John L. Pollock, Duncan Pritchard, Joseph Salerno, Robert J. Stainton, Harry S. Silverstein, Joseph Thomas Tolliver, Leora Weitzman.

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Stanley, J. 2005. Knowledge and Practical Interests. Oxford: Oxford University Press. Unger, P. 1984. Philosophical Relativity. Minneapolis: University of Minnesota Press. 2 Theorizing Justification Peter J. Graham Just as there are many theories of the concept of knowledge—some that require justification and some that do not—so too there are many theories of the concept of justification. Any epistemology textbook or anthology would lead one to believe that the major disagreements over its analysis are internalism versus externalism and foundationalism versus coherentism.

A subject may be morally obligated to believe something that is not epistemically justified for her. It may also be practically rational for a subject to believe something without evidence for its truth. Correspondingly, a subject may have plenty of evidence in favor of believing something that morally or practically she should not believe. Furthermore, a subject may have inquired whether P and found little evidence for P. Belief in P would then not be justified. Likewise, a subject may have conducted no inquiry whether P, but for all that possess plenty of evidence in favor of P.

Skeptical invariantists will say that in all contexts, all alternatives are relevant, while nonskeptical invariantists will say that, in all contexts, a relatively small range of alternatives is relevant. Although skeptical and nonskeptical invariantists cannot say that there is contextual variation in the range of relevant alternatives, they can say that there is such variation in the range of salient alternatives—that is, in the range of alternatives that are salient to the speaker. 15 To see this, focus first of all on the puzzle about importance described in section 1.

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