By John R. Perry
A ahead considering and particularly well known chief, Karim Khan Zand (1705-1779) used to be the founding father of the Zand dynasty in Iran. during this insightful profile of a guy earlier than his time, esteemed educational John Perry indicates how through starting up foreign exchange, utilising a good economic procedure and exhibiting admire for present non secular associations, Karim Khan succeeded in making a peaceable and wealthy nation in a very turbulent epoch of historical past.
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But during this same period there were other executions and acts of cruelty which plainly embarrass the most devoted chroniclers and can only be regarded as a stain on the Vakil’s record of magnanimity and forbearance. It would seem that tensions had arisen in the Zand ranks which led to something approaching a purge. During Karim’s summer recreation in the Khamsa region in 1760, a Zand officer was executed after a harem squabble involving Khadija, Karim Khan’s new Qajar bride. During the siege of Urmiya, a plot was discovered to assassinate the Vakil; some half-dozen conspirators, including the camp physician, were executed, and their heads flung at the foot of the city wall.
Abol-Fath of the Haft Lang branch of the Bakhtyari, a noble with an illustrious genealogy reaching back to the spiritual mentor of the early Safavid family, enjoyed the support both of his tribesmen in the city and of the Afsharid loyalists, if indeed any were left. indd 23 03/04/2006 09:44:56 24 KARIM KHAN ZAND by comparison an upstart who owed his career to Nader Shah’s appreciation of his valor. Karim Khan, though not mentioned by any of the Europeans present at the capture of Isfahan, had evidently risen to pre-eminence among the ranks of Ali Mardan’s Lur lieutenants.
Indd 24 03/04/2006 09:44:56 THE RETURN OF THE ZANDS 25 Khan Mishmast. With the help of the Vali of Ardalan, they had already repulsed an attack in 1749 by the Zangana tribe, and were determined not to relinquish their charge until it became clear who would prevail in the complex struggle for power. Negotiations with Karim Khan, though conducted courteously on both sides, failed to secure the fortress, and the Zands set off for a campaign in Kurdistan before the winter. The Vali, Hasan Ali, was ill-prepared, and welcomed his new suzerains with diplomatic compliance, but the Zand army sacked and burned Sanandaj and laid waste much of the environs before retiring to winter in their home territory.