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Extra info for Islamic Beliefs and Practices (The Islamic World)
Complementing the organization into suras and ayahs, there is a crosscutting division into 30 parts, juz’s, each containing two units called hizbs, each of which in turn is divided into four parts (rub ‘al-ahzabs). These divisions facilitate the reading of the Qur’an over periods of different lengths. For example, since Muslims believe that the Qur’an was ﬁrst revealed during the holy month of Ramadan, a time of prayer and fasting, many people recite one juz’ each day and therefore complete the reading of the Qur’an during the month.
The Qurayzah men were separated from the tribe’s women and children and ordered by the Muslim general Sa‘d ibn Mu‘adh to be put to death; the women and children were to be enslaved. This tragic episode cast a shadow upon the relations between the two communities for many centuries, even though the Jews, a “People of the Book” (that is, like Christians and Zoroastrians, as well as Muslims, possessors of a divinely revealed scripture), generally enjoyed the protection of their lives, property, and religion under Islamic rule and fared better in the Muslim world than in the West.
Muhammad, therefore, marched with a large army north to Tabuk but did not engage the enemy. Nevertheless, the Jews and Christians of the region submitted to his authority, and Muhammad guaranteed their personal safety and freedom to practice their religion as he did for the Zoroastrians of eastern Arabia. At that time too the pagan Arab tribes in the north, as well as in other regions, embraced Islam. By 631 Muhammad had brought to a close “the age of ignorance” (al-jahiliyyah), as Muslims called the pre-Islamic epoch in Arabia, and united the Arabs for the ﬁrst time in history under the banner of Islam.