Islam and Modernism in Egypt by Charles C. Adams

By Charles C. Adams

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3 • The word' order', as applied to these fraternities, is the English, n Arabic designation. e. 'W 'Path', referring to the method of instruction, initiation, and reli exercises, the object of which is, by moral purification and inducemen state of ecstasy, to attain to mystical union with God. The ritual, ac ingly, lays stress upon the emotional religious life. emph their importance to the common religious life of Islam. The Shadhall is one of the most important and is very widely extended. It is str represented in Egypt, being much favoured by the Azhar University; was under the shadow of the Azhar that Abu l,Iasan 'Ali al-Shadhall (d 1258) first organized the order.

Tempts to reform the Azhar. He was supp Shaikh Mul;Lammad al-'Abbasi al-Mahdi, an getic scholar who was at that time Shaikh (o called, Rector) of Al-Azhar. 2 Various imp introduced into the curriculum and mana school, among them a schedule of examinat of six examiners. Examinations had not required. Ia logic and philosophy. ,an~awi's lectu Vollers in Ene. Islam, art. 'AI-Azhar'. Michel, Introd. but it would seem by mistake. If AI'Tan~awi had bee this latter date, it would have been possible for Mui:Iam attended them, and it would seem natural for him, wit for something new, to have done so.

He arrived in Egypt the second ti first of Mul,1arram, 1288( March 22, 1871. These dates agree best wi vious events in Jamal's life. M viii. 387) that he associated with Jamal, beginning with the first of M ram, 1287. In the Introd. to •Al-waridat' (Tiirikh, ii. g. philosophy. 1 2 scholars which were then much neglected, bu all who attended these gatherings with his o engaging conversation and comment on a var He was always lavish, and even undiscrimina ing his treasures of wisdom to all who came were 'devotees of wisdom' or not.

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