By Eric Martinot
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Additional info for Investments to improve the energy efficiency of existing residential buildings in countries of the former Soviet Union
The burner must be ignited at the time hot water is required). A small fraction of households (less than 5 percent) use gas or LPG for space heating. Most buildings that use natural gas for cooking and heating do not have gas meters. Wood and Coal A very small fraction of households use wood or coal for cooking or heating. Heat consumption (both space heating and hot water) in general and residential heat consumption in particular represent substantial shares of total energy consumption in FSU countries.
In other languages, such as those for countries where district-heating systems exist, standard terms exist that distinguish such boilers from district-heating boilers. In this report, "autonomous heating boiler" denotes such boilers. Page 11 than two-thirds of all district heat in Ukraine and Lithuania (International Energy Agency 1996; Kazakevicius et al. 10 District-heating systems supply heat to buildings through extensive networks of underground pipes carrying pressurized hot water (with a typical maximum design temperature of 150°C in large systems).
Page 3 Enterprises One legacy of the Soviet era is that enterprises (both state-run and private) in some FSU countries still operate social assets such as residential buildings, schools, and hospitals. Enterprises are responsible for maintaining these assets and for providing utility services. In countries where housing and utility subsidies still exist, enterprises must provide the same subsidies to households living in enterprise housing as the government provides to households living in municipal or private housing.