Institutions of Modern Spain: A Political and Economic Guide by Michael T. Newton

By Michael T. Newton

This ebook offers a special and complete consultant to Spain's political and fiscal associations. The authors exhibit how those have advanced during the last decade to mirror the expanding regionalization of public existence and actual integration of the rustic into eu Union associations. knowledgeable remark on the finish of every bankruptcy balances exact descriptions of the associations involved, and cautious cross-referencing guarantees an knowing of the main hyperlinks between firms. this is often an improved, revised and fully-updated version of the authors' ebook Spain: A advisor to Political and fiscal associations, (CUP 1987).

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Economically some progress was made, notably in the gradual reduction of inflation to tolerable levels and in the improvement of the balance of payments situation; however, unemployment continued to rise and during this period remained stubbornly over 20 per cent, an overall figure that in fact disguised even higher levels in some of the poorer rural parts of central and southern Spain. Spain's path to membership of the European Community was long and arduous. The negotiations which began in 1979 faltered on many occasions and it took until January 1986 to convert Spain's long-cherished aspiration into a reality.

On the face of it, this wording does not seem to differ significantly from that of Franco's 1967 Organic Law of the State. Traditionally suspicious of all moves towards a weakening of central control, the armed forces have once again been granted the role of safeguarding 'the territorial integrity' of the country, a direct allusion to the possible attempt of any region of Spain to secede. Moreover, article 2 of the Organic Law on National Defence and Military Organisation {Ley Organica de Defensa Nacional y Organization Militar) of 1980, makes it clear that one of the aspects of national defence, in which the armed forces are obviously involved, is guaranteeing 'the unity of Spain'.

It should be noted that the ombudsman and the Audit Tribunal in a sense occupy a slightly lower hierarchical order, since they are dependent on the Cortes. 3 Major Spanish institutions, 1995 Official bodies at national level Constitutional bodies (1)" Central state administration (2) Institutional administration (1,6,9) Constitutional Court (2) Central government (5) The Crown (3) Central administration (ministries) (6) Autonomous administrative bodies (6) Autonomous commercial, industrial and financial bodies (9) Parliament (4) Consultative bodies (5) Social security (6) Public financial State institutions enterprises (9) (13) Management entities (6) Public law entities (9) Common services (6) Trading enterprises (9) Audit Tribunal (9) • Council of State (5) Ombudsman (2) • Economic and Social Council (5) • Directorate.

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