Infrastructure at the Crossroads: Lessons from 20 Years of by World Bank

By World Bank

'Infrastructure on the Crossroads' brings jointly classes from the final 20 years of worldwide financial institution engagement in infrastructure. It analyzes traits within the Bank's infrastructure lending, describes the evolution of the exterior setting and the Bank's personal strategic priorities, and offers classes approximately undertaking layout and appraisal, poverty concentration, deepest zone participation, environmental and social sustainability, the problem of corruption, and stakeholder communications.

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In Ghana, for example, in spite of the demonstrated success of low-cost, labor-based rural road rehabilitation under the IDA-financed Road Rehabilitation and Maintenance Project, the government de facto returned to more costly and less sustainable machine-based construction. 2 Community-Driven Rural Water Supply and Sanitation in India The Uttar Pradesh Swajal project (approved in 1996) established full cost recovery for the operation and maintenance of rural water supply and sanitation systems, and partial cost recovery for capital costs—a major improvement over past practices in India.

In some cases, the very poorest customers were given the option to provide labor during construction as part of their payment to the service provider. In other cases, the schemes were adapted to allow some up-front payments to encourage more aguateros to take on a larger role and bid for the schemes. The OBA scheme in Paraguay and elsewhere demonstrate that output-based aid is a flexible mechanism to enhance the effectiveness of subsidy delivery to provide infrastructure services to the poor. ■ When most of the poor are not connected, connection subsidies lowering the barrier to access are a more effective means to support them than consumption subsidies.

The Tunisia North-West Mountainous Areas Development Project—a rural infrastructure development initiative—undertook baseline and followup surveys, and included extensive M&E training of local agencies. While a sector ministry in a typical developing country in the 1980s had statistical data on the physical stock of infrastructure, the technical and financial performance of state-owned infrastructure providers was rarely monitored. Because service providers could scarcely be distinguished from their sector ministries, there was little motivation to develop performance criteria and measurement to strengthen accountability.

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