By Task Committee on Hydraulics of Wells, Nazeer Ahmed, Stewart W. Taylor, Zhuping Sheng
Ready by way of the duty Committee on Hydraulics of Wells of the Groundwater Hydrology Technical Committee of the Groundwater Council and Watershed Council of the Environmental and Water assets Institute of ASCE. Hydraulics of Wells: layout, development, checking out, and upkeep of Water good platforms offers complete therapy of the engineering concerns concerning the advance and administration of low cost provides of groundwater. Groundwater is a crucial source in approximately all components of the area. simply because groundwater is usually of top quality and dependability, this very important source is used to provide consuming water in approximately all elements of the globe. call for for groundwater is anticipated to extend as inhabitants expands and know-how advances. but groundwater isn't loose from charges and boundaries, together with the development and upkeep of wells and pumping gear, in addition to garage and transmission infrastructure. Threats to good potential and water caliber upward thrust from a number of elements, corresponding to toxins, overuse, and drought. This handbook of perform codifies present practices within the water good so as to increase the id, improvement, and administration of groundwater assets sooner or later. subject matters comprise:
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Additional info for Hydraulics of wells : design, construction, testing, and maintenance of water well systems
0002 Source: Todd and Mays (2004). Reproduced with permisison from Wiley A crude mathematical model of ﬂow through porous media may be constructed by considering the media to behave as slow, steady, horizontal ﬂow through a network of parallel tubes. By integration of the NavierStokes equation along the length of the tube, the speciﬁc discharge, q, of this ideal media would be (Bear 1972, Eq. 2]) ⎛ Nd 2 ρ g ⎞ Δh q = −⎜ ⎝ 32μ ⎟⎠ Δ x (1-7) where q = bulk velocity of equivalent media, (m/s) N = number of parallel tubes in the network per unit area, (dimensionless) d = tube diameter, (m) ρ = density of water, (kg/m3) FUNDAMENTAL CONCEPTS OF GROUNDWATER FLOW 19 g = gravitational acceleration, (m/s2) Δh = ﬁnite differential of hydraulic head, (m) μ = dynamic viscosity of water, (Pa s) Δx = ﬁnite length of network of parallel tubes, (m).
In this type of setting, horizontal ﬂow and changes in the piezometric head in the horizontal direction are often of greater signiﬁcance than those that occur in the vertical, and it may be that only vertically averaged values of piezometric head are of importance. Under these conditions, the water table elevation or piezometric surface are thought of as average values over the vertical and used in understanding the horizontal distribution of piezometric head in the aquifer. If a purely horizontal characterization is appropriate, then the mass balance equation may be integrated over the vertical direction, resulting in a two-dimensional, horizontal mathematical characterization of aquifer ﬂow given as ∂ ⎛ ∂h ⎞ ∂ ⎛ ∂h ⎞ ∂h Tx ⎟ + ⎜ Ty ⎟ = S +w ⎜ ∂x ⎝ ∂x ⎠ ∂y ⎝ ∂y ⎠ ∂t (1-20) where Tx, Tx = transmissivity of the aquifer in x and y directions, (m2/s) S = aquifer storativity, (dimensionless) w = point sink in volume of water per unit of time per unit of horizontal area, (m/s).
7 ft from the center of the pumping well (Moench et al. 1993). Estimate the speciﬁc yield, Sy, based on the drawdown measurements shown in the following Table 1-4, where the quantities shown for each monitoring well are the radial distance from the pumping well and the drawdown after this 12-h test. Solution The speciﬁc yield can be estimated simply by dividing the water volume removed from the aquifer by the dewatered soil media volume. Nwankor et al. (1984) describe this as the volume-balance technique for estimating speciﬁc yield.