By M. Judaš, N. J. Milošević, M.-R. Rašin (auth.), Professor Dr. Ivica Kostović (eds.)
Many complicated molecular interactions are all in favour of the improvement of the mammalian mind. Molecules serving as tips cues for migratory cells, becoming axons and for popularity of postsynaptic objectives are an important subject for study simply because they're without delay enthusiastic about the formation of neuronal circuits, hence growing the root for next practical refinement via interactions with the surroundings. moreover, such a lot assistance cue molecules also are fascinated by plasticity, harm fix and regeneration within the grownup mind.
This quantity reports present wisdom on significant sessions of molecules excited about: counsel of growing to be axons; tau proteins fascinated by the institution of axonal polarity, outgrowth and speak to reputation; gangliosides and lectins concerned about neuronal migration, neurite outgrowth and speak to attractiveness; and myelin molecules that inhibit nerve regeneration.
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Extra info for Guidance Cues in the Developing Brain
Cell Tissue Res 290:299-306 McConnell SK, Ghosh A, Shatz CJ (1989) Subplate neurons pioneer the first axon pathway from the cerebral cortex. Science 245:978-982 Mellitzer G, Xu Q, Wilkinson DG (2000) Control of cell behavior by signaling through Eph receptors and ephrins. Curr Opin Neurobiol10:400-408 30 M. Judas et al. Metin C, Godement P (1996) The ganglionic eminence may be an intermediate target for corticofugal and thalamocortical axons. J Neurosci 16:3219-3235 Metin C, Deleglise D, Serafini T, Kennedy TE, Tessier-Lavigne M (1997) A role for netrin-1 in the guidance of cortical efferents.
2002). Slit2 is a chemorepellent molecule for dentate gyrus axons and may have a function in pushing noncommissural axons away from the midline of the forebrain (Nguyen-Ba-Charvet et al. 1999). Finally, complementary gradients of receptor and ligand expression and binding were found in the hippocamposeptal system, with Ephrins A2, A3 and AS expressed in the septum and EphAS in the hippocampus (Gao et al. 1996; Zhang et al. 1996). In vitro, Ephrin-A2 can inhibit neurite outgrowth from explants of the topographically appropriate medial, but not lateral hippocampus, suggesting that Ephrin-A2 could function as a topographic mapping molecule in the hippocamposeptal map (Gao et al.
It is high in the fetal period and decreases with advancing age due to phosphatase activation (MawalDewan et al. 1994; Dudek and Johnson 1995; Rosner et al. 1995). However, after about 30 years of age, the plasticity burden in limbic and basal forebrain areas, together with additional genetic (mutation of amyloid precursor protein, presenilins and cytochrome-oxidases, polymorphism of apolipoprotein E-gene) and environmental (head trauma) factors that interfere with synaptic plasticity, cause the phosphorylation to increase again (perhaps this time together with increased cleavage of tau; Mesulam 1999).