Grundkurs Künstliche Intelligenz: Eine praxisorientierte by Wolfgang Ertel

By Wolfgang Ertel

Alle Teilgebiete der KI werden mit dieser Einführung kompakt, leicht verständlich und anwendungsbezogen dargestellt. Hier schreibt jemand, der das Gebiet nicht nur bestens aus Forschung und praktischer Anwendung kennt, sondern auch in der Lehre engagiert und erfolgreich vertritt. Von der klassischen Logik über das Schließen mit Unsicherheit und maschinelles Lernen bis hin zu Anwendungen wie Expertensysteme oder lernfähige Roboter.
Sie profitieren von dem umfassenden Einblick in dieses faszinierende Teilgebiet der Informatik, wobei abgesehen von grundlegenden Programmierkenntnissen sowie etwas Mathematik alle Voraussetzungen für ein gutes Verständnis bereitgestellt werden. Sie gewinnen vertiefte Kenntnisse, z. B. hinsichtlich der wichtigsten Verfahren zur Repräsentation und Verarbeitung von Wissen und in dem immer wichtiger werdenden Gebiet des maschinellen Lernens. Vor allem der Anwendungsbezug steht im Fokus der Darstellung. Viele Übungsaufgaben mit Lösungen sowie eine strukturierte Liste mit Verweisen auf Literatur und Ressourcen im net ermöglichen ein effektives und kurzweiliges Selbststudium.

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Extra info for Grundkurs Künstliche Intelligenz: Eine praxisorientierte Einführung

Example text

Zuerst definieren wir ein dreistelliges Prädikat kind(x, y, z) mit der Semantik B(kind(x, y, z)) = w ≡ (B(x), B(y), B(z)) ∈ Kind. , B(anna) = Anna A. ist also kind(eva, anna, otto) wahr. Damit auch kind(eva, otto, anna) gilt, fordern wir mit ∀x ∀y ∀z kind(x, y, z) ⇔ kind(x, z, y), die Symmetrie des Prädikates kind in den letzten beiden Argumenten. 1 und definieren nun das Prädikat nachkomme rekursiv als ∀x ∀y nachkomme(x, y) ⇔ ∃z kind(x, y, z) ∨ (∃u ∃v kind(x, u, v) ∧ nachkomme(u, y)). Jetzt bauen wir eine kleine Wissensbasis aus Regeln und Fakten auf.

A m ∧ B ∧ . . ∧ B n ⇒ f Vor Anwendung der Inferenzregel sind B  , B  , . . , B n – die aktuellen Teilziele – zu beweisen. Nach der Anwendung wird B  ersetzt durch die neuen Teilziele A  ∧ . . ∧ A m . Um zu zeigen, dass B  wahr ist, muss nun gezeigt werden, dass A  ∧ . . ∧ A m wahr sind. Dieser Prozess setzt sich so lange fort, bis die Liste der Teilziele der aktuellen Klausel (der so genannte goal stack) leer ist. Damit ist ein Widerspruch gefunden. Gibt es zu einem Teilziel ¬B i keine Klausel mit einem komplementären Literal B i als Klauselkopf, so terminiert der Beweis und es kann kein Widerspruch gefunden werden.

2 Semantik In der Aussagenlogik wird bei einer Belegung jeder Variablen direkt ein Wahrheitswert zugeordnet. In der Prädikatenlogik wird die Bedeutung von Formeln rekursiv über den Formelaufbau definiert, indem wir zuerst den Konstanten, Variablen und Funktionssymbolen Objekte in der realen Welt zuordnen. 3 Eine Belegung B oder Interpretation ist definiert durch • Eine Abbildung von der Menge der Konstanten und Variablen K ∪ V auf eine Menge W von Namen von Objekten aus der Welt. • Eine Abbildung von der Menge der Funktionssymbole auf die Menge der Funktionen der Welt.

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