German Sociology by Raymond Aron

By Raymond Aron


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51 pp. 384-85. Cf. alsoDfr Wahre Staat, Leipzig, igai. SYSTEMATIC SOCIOLOGY 35 scientific (a reformulation of economics, as the system of social means, with the aid of the notions of particular totalities and of monogenetic and multigenetic unities). But such distinctions are not really very useful, since there is scarcely less philosophy or political doctrine, and scarcely more science, in Spann's socalled scientific works than in those which are called philosophical. CONCLUSION After so brief a survey it is hardly feasible to draw up a balance sheet, but we may legitimately try to bring out those points on which general agreement has been reached.

There are to be no more overpopulated towns, no large centralized states; instead there will be free proprietors, a federal system which is neither centralised nor imperialistic, and a decline in bureaucracy. The ideal is a world society of peaceful peoples, in accordance with the norms of justice as they have been formulated by the Kantian philosopher Nelson, a follower of Fries. Oppenheimer is the most Western minded {westorientiert) of the German sociologists. He is a vigorous critic of racist interpretations of history, and his social ideal is a genuinely liberal society.

Even the discussions of theoretical points, though frequently ingenious (for example, the discussion of Kelsen's assimilation of law and the state, cf. 51, pp. 465-67), produce little in the way of results, since the conclusions are derived by deduction from the basic definitions and from the conceptual system as a whole. What appears most clearly is the outline of a political doctrine which Spann has presented in a more refined and developed form in other books. For example, the concepts of class and estate^ {Stand) (51, pp.

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