By Justin Charlebois
Gender and the development of Hegemonic and Oppositional Femininities investigates how hegemonic and nonhegemonic varieties of femininity are developed within the social associations of college, the office, and the media. Hegemonic femininities are those who shape a complementary and subordinate dating with hegemonic masculinity and in doing so legitimize a hierarchical dating among women and men, and masculinity and femininity. Nonhegemonic femininities contain culturally-idealized dominant femininities, which don't legitimize a hierarchical dating among masculinity and femininity, and gender-deviant subordinate femininities. via an research of current empirical learn and fictional media, the publication illustrates the connection among those a number of femininities and their courting with masculinity
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Extra info for Gender and the construction of hegemonic and oppositional femininities
Furthermore, some of the idealized qualities in cheerleaders include attractiveness, a nice figure, and social adeptness (Adams and Bettis 2003, 34). Problematically, characteristics such as physical strength and endurance are exempt from this list, which supports research findings that physical appearance and sociability versus ability and accomplishments are often valorized in women (Eckert and McConnell-Ginet 1995, 491). Due to the sexualization of cheerleaders and supportive function of most squads, the emancipatory potential of cheerleading is debatable.
Physically violent or aggressive women challenge a presumption that women are physically and emotionally vulnerable. This gendered stereotype penetrates aspects of social life such as the workplace where women are rendered unsuitable for certain masculine professions. As my chapter on the workplace will illustrate, aggression is a defining feature of professional success in many masculinized professions such as business and law enforcement. In contradistinction, feminine characteristics such as collaboration and empathy are conveniently removed from a definition of professional success in order to simultaneously exclude women from these socially prestigious professions and ensure that masculinity occupies a superior position in relation to femininity.
Self-Confidence Reflecting a gendered ideology of complementary differences, which underpins the relationship between hegemonic masculinity and hegemonic femi- 40 Chapter 2 ninity, cultural norms discourage and stigmatize women who are overconfident and overambitious. Whereas men are rewarded for exhibiting self-confidence through terms such as assertive, go-getter, and stud, women are viewed as overstepping the boundaries of conventional femininity and accordingly face disparaging epithets such as aggressive, bitch, or slut (Schippers 2007, 95).