By Jr. Duncan MacRae, Dale Whittington
Monetary reasoning has up to now ruled the sector of public coverage research. This new creation to the sector posits that coverage research must have either a broader interdisciplinary base - together with standards from such fields as political technology, sociology, legislation, and philosophy, in addition to economics - and likewise a broader viewers that allows you to foster democratic debate. to accomplish those pursuits, MacRae and Whittington have geared up their textbook round the development of determination matrices utilizing a number of standards, exploring the makes use of of the choice matrix formula extra absolutely than different texts. They describe easy methods to organize the matrix, fill in cells and mix standards, and use it as an relief for determination making. They convey how moral evaluate of the impacts that choices have on quite a few events differs from political research, after which they expand using the choice matrix to contemplate choices through affected events, sessions of time, or mixed components. The authors additionally thoughtfully handle the position of professional recommendation within the coverage method, widening the scope of the sphere to explain a fancy process for the construction and use of data in a democracy. a longer case learn of HIV/AIDS coverage follows every one bankruptcy (in installments), instantly illustrating the appliance of the fabric. The ebook additionally encompasses a word list. "Expert recommendation for coverage selection" presents a brand new foundation for graduate schooling in public coverage research and will additionally function a textual content in making plans, review examine, or public management. furthermore, it will likely be of curiosity to scholars and execs wishing to assist coverage selection who paintings in such fields as sociology, political technology, psychology, public well-being, and social paintings.
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Extra info for Expert advice for policy choice: analysis and discourse
Their contributions may also be less complete or less direct. The information they give can be part of what is needed for a choice, to be supplemented from other sources. Still less directly, general notions of problem definition can be diffused through the media and public discussion. The extent to which advice really "aids" policy choice depends not only on the nature of the advice, however, but on the analyst's roles and skills as communicator, on the user's skills, and on the political system in which advice is given.
Haynes Page vii Contents Preface xi Acknowledgments xv Introduction 1 Expert Communities and Aid for Policy Decisions 1 Public Policy Analysis 4 Recommendations for Policy Choice: a Central Concern of PPA 5 Expert Advice for Policy Choice: a Broader Definition of the Field 8 Plan for this book 12 Preparatory Advice 13 The General Matrix Approach 15 Selecting Criteria 17 Listing Alternatives 18 Aiding Choices with the Criteria/Alternatives Matrix 19 Considering Multiple Parties 20 Assessing Policies Whose Effects are Distributed Over Time 22 Comparing and Combining Dimensions of Decision Matrices 22 Expert Communities, Quality Control, and Types of Use 23 Notes 24 1 Preparatory Advice 27 Types of Preparatory Advice 27 Differences Between Preparatory Advice and Short-Term Policy Analysis 28 Describing Problem Conditions 29 Causal Exploration 34 Causal Information for Problem Selection 36 Notes 42 Case Study 1A: Preparatory Advice on the HIV Epidemic in the United States 45 Notes 63 2 Selecting Criteria 66 The Primacy of Criteria in Policy Analysis 66 Sources and Justification of Criteria 67 Ethical Criteria and Public Debate 71 Structures of Criteria 77 Guidelines for Selecting a Set of Criteria 81 The Economic Criterion for Policy Choice 88 Criticisms of the Economic Criterion 93 Use and Nonuse Values: Page viii Should Both be Included 95 Notes 101 Case Study 2A: Ethical Issues in Selecting Criteria for AIDS/HIV Policy 104 Notes 111 3 Listing Alternatives 112 Choice Among Policy Alternatives 112 Creativity in Defining and Listing Alternatives 118 Common Sources of Alternatives 119 Economic Alternatives Based on the Notion of Market Failure 121 Policy Design 124 Skills Required for Listing Alternatives 126 Notes 127 Supplement 3S: Departures from Perfect Markets: a Graphical Approach 128 Notes 135 Case Study 3A: Alternatives for AIDS/HIV Policy 136 4 Policy Models 145 Judgments Needed in Policy Models: Filling the Criteria/Alternatives Matrix 145 The Nature of Policy Models 146 Intervention and Experimentation 150 Standards of Quality for Decision-stage Models 166 Technical Feasibility in Policy Models 167 Notes 168 Case Study 4A: Policy Models for AIDS/HIV 171 Notes 191 5 Aiding Choices with the Criteria/Alternatives Matrix 193 The Criteria/Alternatives Matrix as an Aid to Policy Discourse 194 Ways of Using the Matrix to Make Choices 195 A Two-Criterion Example: Regulation of Carcinogens in the Workplace 196 Precision Versus Approximation in the Matrix 209 Users' Reconciliation of Criteria 216 Incomplete Criteria/Alternatives Matrices 224 Notes 229 Case Study 5A: aiding HIV/AIDS policy choices with a criteria/Alternatives Matrix 231 Notes 236 6 Considering Multiple Parties 237 Ethical Choice With the Parties/Alternatives Matrix 237 Advising About Political Interactions 247 Advising About Political Feasibility 251 The Privateness of Personal Interests 253 Political Mapping and Scenarios 256 Examples of Political Feasibility 263 Advising Multiple Interacting Users 267 Notes 268 Case Study 6A: Multiple Parties in HIV/AIDS Policy 271 Notes 279 Page ix 7 Assessing Policies Whose Effects Are Distributed Over Time 280 Distinctive Features of Summing Over Time 280 Individuals' Judgments of Trade-Offs Over Time 282 A Model of Rational Individual Time Preference When a Market Exists 283 Deriving an Analyst's Discount Rate From Market Data 288 Introducing Collective Ethical Judgments for Intertemporal Trade-Offs 289 Managing Infinite Time Series: Analysts' and Citizens' Approaches 290 Treatment of the Future in Ways Other Than Adjusting a Discount Rate 291 Notes 292 Case Study 7A: Time Considerations in AIDS/HIV Policy 294 8 Comparing and Combining Dimensions of Decision Matrices 297 General Approaches to Simplifying Nonpolicy Dimensions 298 The Four-Dimensional Matrix 301 Matrix 307 Five Problem Types From the Three-Dimensional Matrix 312 Concluding Remarks 319 Notes 320 Case Study 8A: The Criteria/Parties Matrix in Analysis of AIDS/HIV Policy 323 Notes 326 9 Expert Communities, Quality Control, and Types of Use 327 Expert Communities' Contributions to Advice 328 Quality Control In Policy Analysis 336 Advising: Channels, Content, and Use 351 Notes 358 Case Study 9A: Quality Control For an HIV/AIDS Policy Proposal 361 Notes 381 Glossary 383 References 395 Index 417 Page xi Preface What is public policy analysis?
Bollen, William N. Dunn, Robert C. Kelner, the late Lester W. Lee, Stephen H. Linder, Michael I. Luger, Michael D. Mink, Alfred Oxenfeldt, Christine M. Poulos, Robert V. Shear, the late George Tiller, David L. Weimer, Gordon P. Whitaker, and students in a series of graduate classes for helpful comments; to Laura Oaks for careful editing of most of the manuscript; to Julie Daniel, Lois Douglass, and Chrissy Sweeney for typing a number of drafts; and to Jessie Cutting for preparing figures on disk.