Epistemology by Duncan Pritchard (auth.)

By Duncan Pritchard (auth.)

This complicated textbook, now in its moment version, offers an obtainable evaluate of a few of the most matters in modern epistemology. Written via knowledgeable within the box, it covers such key issues as advantage epistemology, anti-luck epistemology, epistemological disjunctivism, epistemic price, figuring out, radical scepticism, and contextualism. This e-book is perfect as a suite textual content for a complicated undergraduate or postgraduate direction in epistemology, and also will be of normal curiosity to researchers in philosophy.

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In contrast, on the more inclusive formulation of the safety principle a much wider range of near-by possible worlds are potentially relevant, and thus the proper delineation of the salient possible worlds will be that much harder. Even setting this concern to one side, there is a more fundamental difficulty waiting in the wings for the safety principle, even on the more Anti-Luck Epistemology 37 general formulation. In order to see this, we only need to imagine an adapted version of the Mathema case: Mathemi Mathemi uses a calculator to find out what 12 × 13 is equal to.

If, however, what we are looking for is a way of eliminating luck from knowledge, then it could well be that understanding more about luck will have a bearing on how we should conceive of an anti-luck epistemology. Interestingly, despite its central importance to many fundamental philosophical issues – for example, the problem of free will or the nature of causation, not to mention our current concern, which is the analysis of knowledge – there has been very little written by philosophers on luck.

Unbeknownst to Mathemi, however, her calculator is in fact malfunctioning. In particular, the calculator has two faults, albeit two faults that systematically cancel each other out when it comes to calculations within a given range, one that Mathemi’s calculation falls well within. Intuitively, given the faults in Mathemi’s calculator she cannot gain knowledge that 12 × 13 = 156 in this way. As with the Mathema case, her belief is safe in the sense that she has a belief that could not have easily been false – there are no near-by possible worlds in which Mathemi forms a false belief that 12 × 13 = 156.

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