By Alan J. Silman, Gary J. Macfarlane
Following on within the footsteps of its acclaimed and well known predecessor, this new version builds at the profitable good points that engaged readers of the 1st version: it explains the foundations and perform of epidemiology and serves as a instruction manual when you desire to do epidemiology; it makes use of correct workouts and examples, taken from actual lifestyles, to demonstrate how you can manage a research; it goals to aid produce legitimate effects that might fulfill provide our bodies, moral committees, and magazine editors; eventually it bridges the space among idea and perform. This version comprises a number of advancements and several other new chapters so one can additional improve its attraction.
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Additional info for Epidemiological Studies: A Practical Guide, 2nd edition
25. This approach is used in follow-up studies to compare the subsequent development of a disease in groups determined by their exposure. 16 Which measure of disease occurrence? 2. v In the investigation of an outbreak of gastroenteritis after a banquet, an investigator calculated the cumulative risks, during the arbitrary follow-up time of the study, of developing infection in those who did and did not eat each of the particular foods available. 2 Prevalence The prevalence of disease is the number of individuals in a population with a disease or other personal attribute.
Given that an association is demonstrated in ecologic studies, and even if information is available on potential confounding factors, it does not guarantee that the relationship holds at the level of the individual. For example, there may be a positive association between per capita fat consumption in a country and the incidence of a disease, but within each country it is possible that a higher level of fat consumption results in a lower risk of disease. Drawing inappropriate conclusions about the relationship between an exposure and disease in individuals from ecologic studies has been termed the ecologic fallacy.
In practice, most diseases do not have a single identiﬁable cause, such as infection with a speciﬁc micro-organism or exposure to a particular toxin or physical trauma. By contrast, it appears that most diseases are multifactorial and represent the eﬀects of a combination of genetic, constitutional and environmental factors. e. e. the disease can occur in the absence of that exposure. A simple example is that although smoking is common and is a risk factor for the development of lung cancer, not all individuals who develop lung cancer smoke and not all smokers develop lung cancer.