By C. Beards
So much machines and constructions are required to function with low degrees of vibration as gentle working ends up in diminished stresses and fatigue and little noise. This e-book presents an intensive clarification of the rules and techniques used to examine the vibrations of engineering platforms, mixed with an outline of ways those innovations and effects may be utilized to the examine of keep watch over approach dynamics. a variety of labored examples are incorporated, in addition to issues of labored suggestions, and specific realization is paid to the mathematical modelling of dynamic structures and the derivation of the equations of movement. All engineers, practicing and scholar, must have a great realizing of the equipment of research to be had for predicting the vibration reaction of a approach and the way it may be transformed to supply appropriate effects. this article presents a useful perception into either.
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Additional info for Engineering vibration analysis with application to control systems
18. Fig. 18. Root locus plot. Sec. 2 Vibration with Coulomb (dry friction) damping Steady friction forces occur in many systems when relative motion takes place between adjacent members. These forces are independent of amplitude and frequency; they always oppose the motion and their magnitude may, to a first approximation, be considered constant. Dry friction can, of course, just be one of the damping mechanisms present; however, in some systems it is the main source of damping. In these cases the damping can be modelled as in Fig.
Hence b x = Iox(kx f q k J ( X 2 - x2))dx = XX’qk. Sec. 02. Find the energy dissipated per cycle as a function of the energy in the system at the start of that cycle. 8 mm. 126. 134. 223. 3% of initial energy is dissipated in one cycle. 134.. 134. 579 mm. ~ Example 11 A gun is designed so that when fired the barrel recoils against a spring. At the end of the recoil a viscous damper is engaged which allows the barrel to return to its equilibrium position in the minimum time without overshoot. 6 m.
23. Fig. 27. Phase-frequency response for system of Fig. 23. 50 The vibrations of systems having one degree of freedom [Ch. 2 Fig. 28. Forced vibration vector diagrams: (a) v/w << 1 Exciting force approximately equal to spring force; (b) v/w = 1 Exciting force equal to damping force, and inertia force equal to spring force; (c) v/w >> 1 Exciting force nearly equal to inertia force. The effect of the frequency ratio on the vector diagram is shown in Fig. 28. The importance of mechanical vibration arises mainly from the large values of X f X , experienced in practice when vfw has a value near unity: this means that a small harmonic force can produce a large amplitude of vibration.