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Additional info for Demographic Toxicity: Methods in Ecological R Assessment
Science 293: 638–643. Cameron, T. , and Benton, T. G. 2004. Stage-structured harvesting and its effects: An empirical investigation using soil mites. Journal of Animal Ecology 73(5): 996–1006. , and Wall, R. 2002. Aggregation and habitat use by Lucilia blowflies (Diptera: Calliphoridae) in pasture. Bulletin of Entomological Research 92: 153–158. Daniels, S. 1994. Effects of Cadmium Toxicity on Population Dynamics of the Blowfly Lucilia sericata. D. thesis, University of Reading, UK. Evans, A. C.
This particular life-history strategy makes blowflies a suitable study species for population-dynamic studies: The high fecundity (high intrinsic growth rate), strong competition in the larval stage (nonlinear density dependence) and delayed effect of competition in the adult stage (time lag between the densitydependent stimulus and its demographic responses) may all contribute to fluctuating dynamics in laboratory populations. Experiments The experimental design and protocol are based on an experiment by Nicholson (1954) and are described in more detail in Smith et al.
Predict somewhat too high densities, while the AF versions (density-dependent adult fecundity) predict too low densities. The PS versions (where recruitment to larval stage is not regulated) typically underestimate adult densities and overestimate larval and pupal densities, while the AF versions (where recruitment to adult stage is not regulated) overestimate adult densities. So the separation of these two density-dependent processes generates biased results in opposite directions, but this separation can still help us explore the effects of these two density-dependent processes.