Croisades et croisés au Moyen Âge by Alain Demurger

By Alain Demurger

Le 27 novembre 1095, à Clermont, le pape Urbain II lance un vivid appel à los angeles chrétienté : il faut aller libérer Jérusalem et les Lieux saints de l. a. tutelle des musulmans. À compter de là et jusqu’au milieu du XIIIe siècle, les croisades se succèdent, l. a. dernière se soldant par l. a. mort de saint Louis. En réalité, les choses sont moins simples qu’il n’y paraît : Urbain II n’a jamais employé le mot « croisade », pour commencer. Et le Moyen Âge tout entier est travaillé par des mouvements collectifs, des pèlerinages exaltés, des guerres saintes, qui rendent l. a. suggestion de croisade très difficile à appréhender. Aujourd’hui encore, elle suscite des débats houleux parmi les historiens.

L’auteur de ce petit livre se suggest de faire le aspect sur le sujet, en recourant – on le lui pardonnera – à une métaphore culinaire : « Que faut-il pour réussir une mayonnaise ? Un bol et une cuillère de bois, un jaune d’oeuf, de l. a. moutarde, de l’huile. On mélange jaune d’oeuf et moutarde et l’on ajoute peu à peu l’huile, le tout étant vivement battu à los angeles cuillère, salé et poivré. Et l’on obtient un objet culinaire complètement nouveau. Que faut-il pour qu’il y ait croisade ? Un contexte – favorable – de réforme, un pape inspiré, l’idée de los angeles libération des Églises d’Orient, l. a. guerre sainte, le pèlerinage pénitentiel, los angeles rémission des péchés et Jérusalem. De cet amalgame (lui aussi divin, automobile inspiré par Dieu !) naît l. a. croisade : une idée neuve, un objet historique nouveau. »

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LifE And TEACHings of MuHAMMAd Although the Quran embodies the teachings of Islam, there is another source of guidance Muslims look to as well—the life and teachings of Muhammad. No individual is viewed with the same awe and respect by Muslims as is Muhammad ibn Abd Allah. In countless biographies and poems Muslims have spoken of their profound attachment to the prophet. He is revered by Muslims Quran, Hadith, and the Law 59 Al-Tabari’s Universal History The greatest work of the scholar Abu Jafar Muhammad ibn Jarir al-Tabari is his universal history, Mukhtasar tarikh al rusul wal muluk wal khulafa.

Their empire stretched from Morocco to India and the Abbasid caliphs earned the respect of the entire world. Their wealth came from many different sources. With their army and navy the caliphs controlled the trade routes that crisscrossed the empire. Their empire produced vast amounts of agricultural products and took in revenue through taxation, allowing the early Abbasids to live comfortably in great splendor. To run their empire the Abbasids Arabian Nights developed a large bureaucratic government centered in Baghdad.

Using these two sources as their guide the scholars worked out a set of laws and regulations that came to be known as the sharia. As they saw it this was to be the foundation of Islamic society. To enforce these laws and regulations the scholars also worked with the government to establish an Islamic court system. At the head of this new system were the chief judges, the qadis. thE CoLLAPsE oF thE EMPIrE By the middle of the 10th century the Islamic Empire had given birth to a new and great civilization.

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