By Ravi P Agarwal

The publication files the fundamental discoveries of mathematical and computational scientists in chronological order, following the start of rules at the foundation of earlier rules for ever and ever. The authors record the winding direction of mathematical scholarship all through historical past, and most significantly, the concept means of each one person who led to the mastery in their topic. The booklet implicitly addresses the character and personality of each scientist as one attempts to appreciate their noticeable activities in either hostile and congenial environments. The authors wish that this may permit the reader to appreciate their mode of pondering, and maybe even to emulate their virtues in life.

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Mathematics gives life to her own discoveries; she awakens the mind and purifies the intellect; she brings light to our intrinsic ideas, she abolishes the oblivion and ignorance which are ours by birth. (Proclus Diadochus, 410–485 AD) Neglect of mathematics works injury to all knowledge, since he who is ignorant of it cannot know the other sciences or the things of this world. (Roger Bacon) Nature is written in mathematical language. (Galileo) Mathematicians are like Frenchmen; whatever you say to them they translate into their own language, and forthwith it is something entirely different.

One accepts such theories because of his total faith in the wisdom of these sages, or because he believes this to be the primary (or the sole) path to knowledge. Before we can determine whether a proof is a mathematical proof, we need to understand a few mathematical concepts. By a mathematical statement or proposition, we mean an unambiguous composition of words that is true or false. For example, ‘two plus two is four’ is a true statement, and ‘two plus three is seven’ is a false statement. However, x y D y x is not a proposition, because the variables in this expression are not defined.

Abaci differed from counting boards in that the beads on the abaci contained holes that enabled them to be held on a particular rod of the abacus. The Greeks invented a number of mechanical devices to assist with their problem solving. One of the most famous of these was the Antikythera, a machine designed to calculate astronomical positions that was built around 87 BC and lost a few years later, that has the oldest known complex gear mechanism and is sometimes called the first known analog computer (mechanical).