Aufstieg und Niedergang der römischen Welt (ANRW), 2. by Wolfgang Haase (Hg.)

By Wolfgang Haase (Hg.)

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Testing (1tEtpacrllO<;) The main theme of the Epistle of J ames concerns testing, 1tEtpacrllO<;. It appears in both lead sections of the opening statement (1:2-4 and 1:12-15), as weIl as in major blocks throughout (e. g. 4:1-10, 17). , requires divine wisdom, and relates to the use of wealth. Without delineating the whole testing tradition,76 or the related ye~er tradition, one can at least examine James' use of those traditions. For James testing is not entirely external (as, for example, in the persecutions mentioned in 1 Peter), but partly internal, in one's reaction not only to persecution, but also to economic circumstances and other vicissitudes of life.

Within the situation of testing there can be two reactions. On'e is to trust God and endure. The other is to blame God, to fail to trust hirn as Israel did in the wilderness. It is not that one would deny God, but that one would doubt his ability to save. 78 One of the minds is that directed by the natural human impulse in the person, the evil ye~er. ; fJöovi) = E7tt8Ullta of chapter 1) and thus puts the individual on the path to death (1:14-15). The human reaction to this internal temptation is to blame God for the extern al pressure and thus excuse giving in to it.

HOPPE, Der theologische Hintergrund, 98 - 99, citing 2:1 KUPto<; 'tll<; OO~T\<; and its similarity to 1 Cor. 2:8 cf. 1 Cor. 1:26; Matt. 11:25/ /Lk. 10:21. 3644 PETER H. DAVIDS (4: 10) and the one whose name is called over them in baptism (2: 6 - 7) and in whose name the sick are healed. 91 It is this last aspect of Christology which sets the tone for the work. The Lord is the judge who is coming. The coming is imminent enough that one should wait for it. The judge is "at the door" (5:7 -9). This apocalyptic perspective means that all of life can be looked at in an eschatological context.

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