An outline of Chitonga grammar by Hazel Carter

By Hazel Carter

This is often the fourth in a chain of person guides on Zambian languages and grammar. The purpose of the sequence is to spice up the meagre scholarship and availability of academic fabrics on Zambian languages, which turned rather in pressing in 1996, following the choice of the Zambian govt to revert to the coverage of utilizing neighborhood languages as media of guideline. This quantity offers a grammatical caricature of Tonga, a Bantu language spoken in southern Zambia. it's the mom tongue of a few 800,000 humans. Chapters disguise humans and dialects, sound structures and orthography, morphology and syntax.

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To comefrom there)'. Nominal Affixes These are attachedto nominals, but do not form paí of úe class concord system. inexpressing 'have'. ' For tonal reasonswhich will not be describedhere,_nzí? what kind of ... 'whatkínd of (thing)is it? ' (úing in classZ) Seealso page54 for table: Class Concords in the Verbal Svstem. I' Tongaverbs showthe typical Bântu structureof affixes attachedround a lexicar core,câfled a radicalor roo! send, final vowel (part oftense marker) Compound verbs are formedwith an auxiliary I X standsfor whichevermay be úe classnurnberofthç adjectiveor pronouÍr.

VerbsarequotedasstemswithoutClass15Np. ) bo-lí-kond-ed-w-e'they are pleased' (-kond-w-a 'becomepleased') Relational (also known as Applied, Prepositional or Directive): this gives úe meaning'in relation to' and is often translatedinto Englishby prepositions. Íola'taka away') -fw-íd-w-a'be diedon, be bereaved'(-íwa'die') CausativeI: givesthe meanings'causeto do or be done'or 'usefor doing': -nyem-y-a'makeangry' (+ryema'bacomeangry') -jot-y-a ' seizewith' (-jata ' seize,hold') -li-sy-a'feed' (-W'eat') trouble' fusion',-penzya'makedistressed, (penga 'be in distress') -isla 'causeto leam or be leamt,teach' (ia 'leam') A specialusageof the Câusativeis with reduplicationof the root and the refleÍve objectconcord-/È, meaning'pretendto do': À1 fusion: -li-lanzya-lanzya' pÍetendto be looking' (-langa'look') CausativeIf': -ul-isy-a 'sell, cavseto buy/bebought' (-ula'buy') -sek-esy-a'cheer,amuse' (-seÉa'laugh') Reciprocal-Associative: givesthe meaning,do to eachother,or,do together'.

Mood is less easyto define, but in ChitongaincludesIndicative,Relative, Imperative,Conditional,Hortative,Subjunctiveand paúicipial. There are so many Chitongaverb forms that completeexemplificationis impossiblehere; belowareillustratedsomeof themostcommon. The tone-pattemdependson a numberof factors:the tonalclassof the root, of the subjectprefix, of the objectconcordif any, and wheúer it is a ,strong,or 'weak' variant. The complete pattern set is shown for úe present/Future Indicativeonly. Formsare hyphenatedto show the various elementsin their make-up: tuJa-sal-a 'we choose,are choosing' consistsof úe Sp -ta-, tense marker -la-, verb root -sal- andfinal vowel -a- which is a secondpart of thetensemarker.

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