All Things Medieval: An Encyclopedia of the Medieval World by Ruth A. Johnston

By Ruth A. Johnston

All issues Medieval: An Encyclopedia of the Medieval World covers the widest definition of "medieval Europe" attainable, now not by means of masking historical past within the conventional, textbook demeanour of directory wars, leaders, and demanding old occasions, yet by way of proposing targeted alphabetical entries that describe the artifacts of medieval Europe. through interpreting the hidden fabric tradition and by means of offering information regarding themes that few books cover—pottery, locks and keys, sneakers, weaving looms, barrels, toys, pets, ink, kitchen utensils, and lots more and plenty more—readers get useful insights into the character of lifestyles in the course of that point interval and area.

The heartland eu areas equivalent to England, France, Italy, and Germany are lined greatly, and knowledge in regards to the gadgets of areas similar to Byzantium, Muslim Spain, and Scandinavia also are incorporated. for every subject of fabric tradition, the access considers the complete scope of the medieval period—roughly 500-1450—to supply the reader a ancient viewpoint of comparable traditions or innovations and describes the craftsmen and instruments that produced it.

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Bats were birds, but the bestiary noted that bats were the only birds that had teeth and gave birth to live young. Satyrs, mythical humanoids, were beasts. Ants were beasts, since they were not birds or fish, but worms of all kinds were classed with the snakes, with fleas added for completeness. Whales and dolphins were fish, and frogs were also grouped with fish. In some cases, an animal was clearly considered to be fish, bird, or beast, but in other cases, it may only have been a convenience of grouping.

The mail maker flatted the ends of each wire ring, reheating it to make it soft, and punched tiny holes in the metal. The ends overlapped so the ring could close. Wire rings were riveted with a special tool; when solid punched rings were used, they had to alternate with riveted wire rings—one riveted ring for every four solid ones connected to it. 28 A 12th-century mailed knight kneels to receive a blessing. Embroidered crosses on his surcote show that he is a Crusader. (The British Library/StockphotoPro) Armor The mail maker worked with a dummy like a dressmaker’s.

Words had small spaces between them to make reading easier, although close word spacing continued to be an issue until the late Middle Ages. A lowercase N in the modern form n evolved, as did the earliest step toward a modern W, as overlapping U and V. Because Carolingian scribes copied a very large number of old texts that were falling apart, their script became universal and dominant. They also used some of the older scripts from the material they were copying in order to set off headings and first letters.

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