Abrégé d'histoire du climat : Du Moyen Âge à nos jours by Emmanuel Le Roy Ladurie

By Emmanuel Le Roy Ladurie

Brillante et courte synthèse, suggestive et instructive, des résultats de près d’un demi-siècle de recherches historiennes sur le climat.

Un élément essentiel dans les débats en cours sur l’avenir de los angeles planète.

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Edward II I naturally sought to retain this surcharg e in peacetime . H e manage d afte r 136 0 to secur e fro m parliamen t a continuou s series o f renewal s o f the wartim e rate s o f duty . 000 (73), about tw o third s of the king' s yearly revenue in these years. The direc t taxes (the lay tenths and fifteenths ) wen t o n being collected during most o f th e decad e afte r 1348 . Fo r reason s tha t ar e nowher e explained , n o attempt wa s mad e to reasses s the m afresh . A s a concessio n t o th e landowning class the kin g wa s willing , however, t o deduc t fro m th e quota s du e fro m eac h county th e fine s fo r th e breache s o f th e Statut e o f Labourer s impose d o n it s inhabitants.

THE FINANCIAL POLICIES O F ROYAL GOVERNMENTS I 85 4 VIII Between 136 9 an d 138 0 Franc e experience d muc h heavie r interna l taxatio n than England . Charles V did his best to diminish oppositio n to his fiscal policies. He wa s carefu l t o appeas e al l the majo r noble s by increasin g thei r shar e o f th e taxes levie d in their ow n lordships . H e appears t o hav e gon e beyond th e usua l practice i n also extending these concessions to municipalities. Thus the authorities of Rouen received in 137 3 a third of the town's aides ( 98), which represente d th e same proportion a s the share of most of the great barons.

As migh t b e expected , afte r th e plagu e bot h th e Englis h an d th e Frenc h governments persiste d wit h thei r warlik e policie s an d th e usua l fiscal arrange(67) MOLLA T an d WOLFF , op . , p . 112 . Se e als o belo w fo r furthe r evidenc e o f widespread poverty in France in the reig n o f Charles V (1364-80). , 1976) , p. 306 . (69) E . B . F. Meekings (London , 1978) , pp. 230-31 . (70) R . B . DOBSON , Durham Priory, 1400-1450 (Cambridge , 1973) , p . 271 . THE FINANCIAL POLICIES OF ROYAL GOVERNMENTS I 84 6 ments as if nothing had changed.

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