By Carolyn Mackay
The Totonac-Tepehua language kin, even though typologically just like another Mesoamerican languages, has now not but been validated to be concerning the other language relations. Misantla Totonac is the southernmost number of Totonac and is spoken within the quarter among Xalapa, the capital of Veracruz, Mexico and Misantla, Veracruz. In 1974, a newly paved street attached Xalapa and Misantla bringing a comparatively remoted quarter into touch with mainstream Mexican language and tradition. hence, Misantla Totonac is not any longer received as a primary language through the neighborhood kids and is swiftly being changed by means of Spanish. A GRAMMAR OF MISANTLA TOTONAC provides the phonological constitution of the language and the most efficient morphological strategies. It describes inflection and derivation of all significant be aware sessions (verbs, nominals, and statives) intimately. It introduces grammatical contract and notice order phenomena, and provides the main salient and important points of Misantla Totonac grammar. even though quite a few Totonac-Tepehua grammars exist in Spanish, this can be the one released grammar of the Totonac-Tepehua language family members presently to be had in English. Winner of the yearly Society for the learn of Indigenous Languages of the Americas (SSILA) ebook Award, this marks the 3rd quantity to be released within the sequence. "The fabric offered here's key to any destiny paintings in reconstructing the proto-language. . . .[It] is an important contribution to either normal linguistics in addition to to Mesoamerican experiences. -James Watters, summer season Institute of Linguistics
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Extra info for A grammar of Misantla Totonac
To comefrom there)'. Nominal Affixes These are attachedto nominals, but do not form paí of úe class concord system. inexpressing 'have'. ' For tonal reasonswhich will not be describedhere,_nzí? what kind of ... 'whatkínd of (thing)is it? ' (úing in classZ) Seealso page54 for table: Class Concords in the Verbal Svstem. I' Tongaverbs showthe typical Bântu structureof affixes attachedround a lexicar core,câfled a radicalor roo! send, final vowel (part oftense marker) Compound verbs are formedwith an auxiliary I X standsfor whichevermay be úe classnurnberofthç adjectiveor pronouÍr.
VerbsarequotedasstemswithoutClass15Np. ) bo-lí-kond-ed-w-e'they are pleased' (-kond-w-a 'becomepleased') Relational (also known as Applied, Prepositional or Directive): this gives úe meaning'in relation to' and is often translatedinto Englishby prepositions. Íola'taka away') -fw-íd-w-a'be diedon, be bereaved'(-íwa'die') CausativeI: givesthe meanings'causeto do or be done'or 'usefor doing': -nyem-y-a'makeangry' (+ryema'bacomeangry') -jot-y-a ' seizewith' (-jata ' seize,hold') -li-sy-a'feed' (-W'eat') trouble' fusion',-penzya'makedistressed, (penga 'be in distress') -isla 'causeto leam or be leamt,teach' (ia 'leam') A specialusageof the Câusativeis with reduplicationof the root and the refleÍve objectconcord-/È, meaning'pretendto do': À1 fusion: -li-lanzya-lanzya' pÍetendto be looking' (-langa'look') CausativeIf': -ul-isy-a 'sell, cavseto buy/bebought' (-ula'buy') -sek-esy-a'cheer,amuse' (-seÉa'laugh') Reciprocal-Associative: givesthe meaning,do to eachother,or,do together'.
Mood is less easyto define, but in ChitongaincludesIndicative,Relative, Imperative,Conditional,Hortative,Subjunctiveand paúicipial. There are so many Chitongaverb forms that completeexemplificationis impossiblehere; belowareillustratedsomeof themostcommon. The tone-pattemdependson a numberof factors:the tonalclassof the root, of the subjectprefix, of the objectconcordif any, and wheúer it is a ,strong,or 'weak' variant. The complete pattern set is shown for úe present/Future Indicativeonly. Formsare hyphenatedto show the various elementsin their make-up: tuJa-sal-a 'we choose,are choosing' consistsof úe Sp -ta-, tense marker -la-, verb root -sal- andfinal vowel -a- which is a secondpart of thetensemarker.