By Nora C. England
This can be the 1st full-length reference grammar of Mam, a Mayan language spoken at the present time by means of over 400,000 humans within the western highlands of Guatemala and the country of Chiapas, Mexico. the results of over 3 years of intensive fieldwork in Guatemala, A Grammar of Mam, a Mayan Language relies at the dialect of Mam spoken by way of 12,000 humans in San Ildefonso Ixtahuacan within the division of Huehuetenango, Guatemala. England organizes A Grammar of Mam in line with complementary rules: to investigate Mam following essentially conventional degrees of grammatical description and to provide fabric in this kind of means that the historical past info precious for realizing every one subject of dialogue shall were formerly supplied. for this reason, England's research of the sound approach and morphophonemic procedures of Mam is by way of an outline of the features of root, inflectional, and derivational morphology. Chapters on word constitution precede chapters on sentence-level syntax. A Grammar of Mam is of specific curiosity in interpreting a Mayan language that's either syntactically and morphologically ergative and that's cutting edge towards strengthening the ergative process. certainly in any respect degrees of linguistic association Mam is cutting edge, and hence it really is uniquely attention-grabbing either traditionally and theoretically.
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Extra info for A Grammar of Mam, a Mayan Language (Texas linguistics series)
Transitive verbs are derived from positionals through the These include ROOTS AND WORDS 82 ROOTS AND WORDS 8: colors, flavors, odors, abstract qualities, temperatures, and the meaning changes to be descriptive of the quality of sounds, and personalities. the object rather than its position: Examples of roots which are both (3-18) positional and adjectival are: Positional: Adjective: b'at' b' at' 'thrown down. light DOG 'unkempt' object' b' 'lying with full b' 'very full. ' The positional adjective can be sentence initial, to look structurally more like (3-17), but the sentence now focuses on the entire noun phrase and still not on position: (3-19) b'onk tx'yaan aj Perhaps it makes sense to say that positional roots are reI semantically somewhere between adjectives and transitive verbs.
Enclitics. L The two sets are: 1:11 76 ROOTS AND WORDS ROOTS AND WORDS 77 ! Stative Locative/Existential The base of a locative/existential predicate is (a)t, in which the 'this is X' 'X is (in a place)' 1s (aa) qiin-a (a)t-iin-a in the second and third person singular forms, usually mutu 2s aa-ya (a)t-(a7-y)a ally exclusively with the a7. 2!. ta7 3p aa-qa (a)t-e7 ~ is always optional and is actually used the most Consequently two c'ommon forms The enclitics which accompany these predicates are the same The base of a stative predicate is a demonstrative such as aa as those which accompany person marking on verbs and nouns.
AFFECT WORDS 'the action of scissors cutting hair' (complete Affect words describe an action, a movement, the moment of doing something, or a sound or noise. 4). 8. MEASURE WORDS alkyee 'who (question human noun in direct constituency Measure words quantify mass nouns so that they can be counted. Mam has a great many measure words which are quite specific in reference. 6). '. Examples: possessive, benefactive, patient) al iib'aj Measure Word Common Noun baas 'glassful (Sp)' ma7l 'shot of liquor' laq 'plateful' pixh 'piece' txut 'drop' ba7uj 'with whom' (questions instrument, comitative) baas al uj 'over what' 'in what' (I do not have the other locatives attested in question for mat ions , but assume that laq 'plate' txut 'drop' jtOj 'when' jatu(u)ma 'a lot' jaa 'where' jte7 'how much, how many' tza7n 'how' 9.