By Pierre Goubert, Michel Denis
Il existe, soutient Chateaubriand, un monument précieux de l. a. raison en France : ce sont les cahiers des trois ordres en 1789. Là se trouvent consignés, avec une connaissance profonde des choses, tous les besoins de los angeles société.
La Révolution est née de l. a. conjonction d’une crise économique et d’une crise politique où s’affrontaient l. a. monarchie, incapable de se réformer, l’aristocratie, attachée à ses privilèges, l. a. bourgeoisie, enrichie par l. a. prospérité économique de l. a. veille et enhardie par les Lumières au aspect de vouloir gouverner, et les éclats inattendus, anciens dans beaucoup de leurs qualities, nouveaux dans d’autres, du prolétariat des villes et des campagnes subitement poussé à de brutales et massives initiatives.
Dans ce climat complexe furent rédigés, en toute liberté, le plus souvent à los angeles fin de l’hiver 1788 et au début du printemps 1789, en pleine crise, des dizaines de milliers de cahiers de doléances. Pour l. a. première fois, los angeles majeure partie du peuple de France a los angeles parole.
Des dizaines de milliers de cahiers, Pierre Goubert et Michel Denis ont extrait les passages les plus significatifs et les plus vivants. Le lecteur demeure frappé par leurs contradictions, leur médiévalité autant que par leur nouveauté.
Suivi d'un Glossaire pratique de los angeles langue de quatre-vingt-neuf.
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The growing receptivity to French literature throughout the early part of this century has, then, its origins in the work of the writers of the 1890s; and their literary leanings and origins are in large measure traceable to the consistent advocacy for French literature of Walter Pater. NOTES 1. W. Houghton and G. R. : Houghton Mifflin, 1968) p. 755. 2. Edmund Gosse, Life of Swinburne (London: Macmillan, 1917) p. 168. 3. Swinburne was the first in England to write of Baudelaire and is generally credited with introducing Gautier's formulation of 'art for art's sake' to English readers in his William Blake (London: Hotten, 1868) p.
9 Pater's The Renaissance sounded a new note in criticism and in critical theory by presenting an eclectic 'aesthetic' criticism drawn from principles enunciated by the critic Charles Augustin SainteBeuve and the historian Jules Michelet. The work also has as its premises an appreciation of the art and literature of the ancient world, the Middle Ages, the Renaissance and Pater's own era that is founded upon the principles of French Romanticism. In the several portraits litterairies (literary portraits) in his work Pater incorporated notions from Sainte-Beuve and Michelet; he also uses the work of Renan, Chateaubriand, Rousseau, Madame de Stael, Victor Hugo, Theophile Gautier, Blaise Pascal and Joseph Joubert to explain and amplify his theories of a proto-Renaissance in the Middle Ages, of a cultural continuity from that time to the present, and of France as the principal locus and fount of cultural activity.
Joyce, as a writer of fiction based on close observation, makes a more detailed attack upon hypOCrisy than either Wilde or Yeats - he shows his countrymen pretending to piety and goodness but actually using religion and morality to curb individual lives with cruelty and repressiveness. In Dubliners he presented his initial indictment of Ireland in terms of its inertness, repression and corruption. Yet Dubliners does not rest in the portrayal of decadence. It establishes by tacit antithesis what it is the country lacks.